SWC Agenda – HIS 100


Spring 2019 History 100 US Before 1877

Class 23 (Last class!), History 100

Image result for sad emoji

Sign in! Sign In! Sign IN!!!

Rich Gibson, PhD. Pennsylvania State University

Emeritus Professor, SDSU

Professor, SWC

Please display name cards in each class.

Why are things as they are? We make our own history, but not in circumstances we chose.

We can comprehend and change the world: Gibson

May 21st

1856Lawrence, Kansas is captured and burned by pro-slavery forces.  John Brown is coming soon!

1871 – French troops invade the Paris Commune and engage its residents in street fighting. By the close of “Bloody Week“, some 20,000 communards have been killed and 38,000 arrested.

Our Last Agenda

1. Very fast what’s up as there is little time!

2. Picking up where we left off….

3. Fond Farewells….

 

=================================================================================================

Class 22 (almost done!), History 100

Sign in! Sign In! Sign IN!!!

Rich Gibson, PhD. Pennsylvania State University

Emeritus Professor, SDSU

Professor, SWC

Please display name cards in each class.

Why are things as they are? We make our own history, but not in circumstances we chose.

If someone stole your education, steal it back: Gibson

May 16th

1770 – A 14-year-old Marie Antoinette marries 15-year-old Louis-Auguste who later becomes king of France.

Image result for marie antoinette let the m eat cake

1843 – The first major wagon train heading for the Pacific Northwest sets out on the Oregon Trail with one thousand pioneers from Elm Grove, Missouri.

Image result for oregon trail

1918 – The Sedition Act of 1918 is passed by the U.S. Congress, making criticism of the government during wartime an imprisonable offense. It will be repealed less than two years later.

1966 – The Communist Party of China issues the “May 16 Notice“, marking the beginning of the Cultural Revolution.

Image result for mao little red book

1997Mobutu Sese Seko, the President of Zaire, flees the country. Mobutu came into power after the CIA helped to assassinate Patrice Lumumba, a democratically elected nationalist. Mobutu ruled the Congo (which he renamed Zaire) as a ruthless dictator and US ally for more than 30 years–1965 to 1997.

Mobutu.jpg

Catch up! Remember, Portfolios due May 23 at Midnight. Hard deadline.

Our Agenda

  1. What IS Up?

*** Identity politics and NYC monuments

====================================================================================================

Class 21 (almost done!), History 100

Sign in! Sign In! Sign IN!!!

Rich Gibson, PhD. Pennsylvania State University

Emeritus Professor, SDSU

Professor, SWC

Please display name cards in each class.

Why are things as they are? We make our own history, but not in circumstances we chose.

history quotes history who are why the way david mccullough wisdom

Catch up Catch up Catch up Catch up Catch UP!!!!!!!!!!!!!!

May 13th + !4th

1846Mexican–American War: The United States declares war on Mexico.

1861 – The Great Comet of 1861 is discovered by John Tebbutt of Windsor, New South Wales, Australia.

Watch out for the coming asteroid!

https://www.nasa.gov/planetarydefense/faq

1985 – Police bombed MOVE headquarters in Philadelphia to end a stand-off, killing six adults and five children, and destroying the homes of 250 city residents.

Our Agenda

1. What IS UP?

***Cool Obit

***120,000 more troops to Middle East (plus carrier battle groups)???

2.Picking up where we left off with a bit of review.  First, Yale’s David Blight for about 15 minutes.

Key Results of the Civil War (ending in 1865)

***Primacy of the National Government, Federalism, over State Rights

***Dejure if not defacto destruction of the slave system (in law, not necessarily reality)

***Triumph of industry (grew nearly 80% in a decade–1860 to 1870)). Finance capital booming but many financial collapses ahead.

***Liberal immigration policy, parts of the policy paralleled indentured servitude. Remember: Who will do the work?

***National Banking System overcomes state and bank issued currency.

***Homestead Act of 1862 (“free” land in the west to settlers, creating the “need” to encircle Native Americans and intern them in “reservations”). Following the war, US troops went west

***by 1870, trusts or monopolies flourished. Perhaps the most famous was the oil trust, Standard Oil, controlled by John D. Rockefeller.

Image result for john d rockefeller trusts cartoon

Cartoonists attacked Rockefeller and the trusts’ rule of legislatures.

Image result for john d rockefeller trusts cartoon

Image result for john d rockefeller trusts cartoon

 

Ida Tarbell, a “muckraking” journalist, wrote the definitive book about the Standard Oil Trust and Rockefeller in the early 1900’s.

Image result for ida tarbell standard oil

 

“Jim Crow” laws demanded separation in nearly all aspects of life. While the term is usually reserved for the former Confederation, southern, states, segregation existed all over the US. It was only a bit more gentle in the north, and still is.

Below, the racist portrayal of Jim Crow

Image result for jim crow

In South Africa, “apartheid,” was similar to Jim Crow. Remember our investigation of “What is racism? Where does it come from? Who does it serve?”

Famous Northern Generals, made heroes by the Civil War efforts, went west to fight and kill Indians. Among the Generals:  William TECUMSEH Sherman, Little Phil Sheridan, and George Armstrong Custer.

While the Indians were never exterminated, the term “genocide” which has a strictly legal meaning, can be loosely applied.

This is the best book about the Wounded Knee massacre:

Image result for bury my heart at wounded knee

 

 

Bison Skull Pile

23 Great Plains Indian Wars

 

 

But, things changed, just not as fast as they should have.

Lawyer and author Michelle Alexander believes there is a “New Jim Crow”

My colleague and friend, Roxanne Dunbar Ortiz wrote an excellent essay on what was to come next:

Dr. Roxanne Dunbar-Ortiz: “The great revolutionary movements in the US have largely been powered by African-American, Mexican-American, and Native-American resistance” 

We are nearly done with our class. If you are caught up in your reading responses and papers, great. If not–catch up. Of course, I will have to consider extremely late submissions and absenteeism in grading.

====================================================================================================

Class 20 (almost done!), History 100

Sign in! Sign In! Sign IN!!!

Rich Gibson, PhD. Pennsylvania State University

Emeritus Professor, SDSU

Professor, SWC

Please display name cards in each class.

Why are things as they are? We make our own history, but not in circumstances we chose.

A nation whose citizens have no knowledge of history is asking to be led by quacks, charlatans, and jingos. Eric Alterman from essay in the New Yorker, “The Decline of Historiical Knowledge”

Catch up Catch up Catch up Catch up Catch UP!!!!!!!!!!!!!!

May 9th

Yesterday was VE Day–VJ Day coming in August–symbol below

Image result for vj day

1865 – American Civil War: President Andrew Johnson issues a proclamation ending belligerent rights of the rebels and enjoining foreign nations to intern or expel Confederate ships.

1887Buffalo Bill Cody‘s Wild West Show opens in London.

1945 – World War II: The final German Instrument of Surrender is signed at the Soviet headquarters in Berlin-Karlshorst.

1960 – The Food and Drug Administration announces it will approve birth control as an additional indication for Searle‘s Enovid, making Enovid the world’s first approved oral contraceptive pill.  WOO HOOO!

1970Vietnam War: In Washington, D.C., 75,000 to 100,000 war protesters demonstrate in front of the White House.

What iS UP

Cheer UP!

Trump Tantrum

Behind the scenes at the White House

Posted by The Socialist Way on Thursday, December 13, 2018

***Anniversary of the end of apartheid in S. Africa. How’s it going?   https://www.cnn.com/2019/05/07/africa/south-africa-elections-inequality-intl/

***Happy Happy Joy Joy New Monarch Born in Britain!

After the Civil WarReconstruction and Jim Crow

Professor Devine describes the period of about 12 years after the Civil war, 1865 to 1877, the Reconstruction Era, as “agony.”

For who? Again, standpoint is key.

Both North and South were in serious financial trouble after the war.

Lincoln, who stood for reconciliation, was assassinated by John Wilkes Booth, a well known actor, in April, 1865.

V.P Andrew Johnson became President. He rather quickly pardoned the masters of the South.

People freed by the war, by self help, and by law, were set free with no education and no land. It’s the hollow kind of freedom, a mystical pretense, that arches over much of American reality.

Johnson was the only southern (born in the Carolinas, moved to Tn.) senator loyal to the union. He hated rich planters but thought everyone should have a slave: Devout racist, unionist.

Reconstructing Southern Society
South devastated– cities burned, factories ruined. 50% of wealth vanished.
Black people want land, education, and the vote (Dubois says just first two, without them the vote is hollow)
Northerners travel south to help, and to profit.
Divine on page 416 blames the freed people’s goals for violence and chaos. 

Federal troops would be required to enforce the Constitution and the Reconstruction Amendments in the South (but remember, the Constitution is designed to protect property, that is, capital).

The Reconstruction era in the south was probably the most small d, democratic, era in US history. But that could only happen under the gaze of armed Federal troops.

More evidence of history as a battleground, for about 100 years, this Reconstruction period was taught as a time of mass corruption, rape, and hysteria. It was, and often still is, the South’s narrative (see Ken Burns PBS series “The Civil War” linked below).

Brilliant historian W. E. B. Dubois changed that with “Black Reconstruction in America.” (1935). But even for years after its publication, racism dominated the teaching of Reconstruction.

There was constant struggle over what the south would be.

Contradictions:

Radical Republicans in north and south vs Democrats,

ex-slaves vs white southern racists and planter elites,

poor whites in south vs nearly everyone else,

and the Presidents for the preservation of property laws: capital and profits.

Frederick Douglass continued his struggle against racism during Reconstruction. He was appointed head of the Reconstruction Freedmans’ Bank.

President Johnson was in constant battle with congressional Republicans. He was impeached, but the process failed.

U.S. Grant, top Northern General during the Civil War, was elected President in 1868.

Prior to Reconstruction, many southern states, like Georgia, had no public school system. Reconstruction set up “Freedman’s” Bureau schools.

Remember, General Fremont had promised to give all the Mississippi lands to ex-slaves.

General Sherman promised every former slave “40 acres and a mule,” along the south’s east coast. Expectations were high. Some people actually were able to keep their land, most of it along the Carolina coast and on nearby islands.

However, somewhat like the treaties with the Indians, those promises to ex-slaves were broken far more often than not.

Early in Reconstruction, the Ku Klux Klan, White League and Red Shirts, and other conspiratorial terrorist groups began a campaign of lynching.

This “first KKK” was secretive. The “second” Klan, rising in the 1920’s, was violent but mainly engaged in racist, anti-Catholic, anti-Semitic electoral work, putting tens of thousands of ardent racists into high, and local offices–including the Supreme Court (Hugo Black) and, probably, the presidency (Truman).

In a speech delivered on November 15, 1867, Douglass said: “A man’s rights rest in three boxes. The ballot box, jury box and the cartridge box.

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=I3kmVgQHIEY

Grant Signed:

The Civil Rights Act of 1871

The Civil Rights Act of 1871 is a United States federal law that prohibits ethnic violence against black people. The Act was passed to protect southern blacks from the Ku Klux Klan by providing a civil remedy for abuses then being committed in the South.

Pursuant to 42 USCS § 1983 “Every person who, under color of any statute, ordinance, regulation, custom, or usage, of any State or Territory or the District of Columbia, subjects, or causes to be subjected, any citizen of the United States or other person within the jurisdiction thereof to the deprivation of any rights, privileges, or immunities secured by the Constitution and laws, shall be liable to the party injured in an action at law, suit in equity, or other proper proceeding for redress, except that in any action brought against a judicial officer for an act or omission taken in such officer’s judicial capacity, injunctive relief shall not be granted unless a declaratory decree was violated or declaratory relief was unavailable.”

But, by the early 1870’s the White League and the Klan, had taken over entire states (like La.)-even with the Federal troops in place. Northern rank and file racists were tired of the “south’s problem.”

Divine fails to note the White Leagues were known as the military arm of the Democratic party. They were well armed confederate vets who operated in the open. Funded by wealth who got them money for good Winchesters, etc. 5,000 of them fought a pitched 1874 battle with the state militia and won.

Grant sent troops. They drifted away. But 1874 was the last time Grant sent troops.

1872 Election: Grant and the Republicans win
Democrats ran an openly racist campaign, hostile to Federal Control–back to State’s Rights!
New rise of now-unmasked violence.

Grant’s presidency was mired by scandals: Credit Mobilier, a banking scandal; The Black Friday scandal involving Jay Gould and Jim Fisk seeking to corner the gold market, and more. The scandals damaged the reputation of the Republican Party and Grant.

Congress adopted the Civil Rights Act of 1875 which, like similar measures, proved nearly meaningless except as historical artifacts.

(later declared unconstitutional) guaranteed African Americans equal rights in public places like theaters & public transportation.

Here is how Howard Zinn addresses the election of 1876–and brings it into the present. This was probably the most racist campaign in US history.

Tennis on the Titanic

…as the Gore-Bush contest rose to a frenzy, the media kept referring — to the Hayes-Tilden election of 1876.

The education that the public received about this was typical of what passes for history in our schools, our newspapers, our television sets. That is, they learned how the Founding Fathers, in writing the Constitution, gave the state legislators the power to choose Electors, who would then choose the President.

We were told how rival sets of electors were chosen in three states, and how Samuel Tilden, the Democrat, had 250,000 more popular votes than the Republican , Rutherford Hayes, and needed only one more electoral vote to win the Presidency. But when a special commission, with a bare Republican majority, was set up by Congress to decide the dispute, it gave all three states to Hayes and thus made him President.

This was very interesting and informative about the mechanics of presidential elections and the peculiar circumstances of that one .

But it told us nothing about how that “Compromise of 1877”, worked out between Republicans and Democrats in private meetings, doomed blacks in the South to semi-slavery. It told us nothing about how the armies that once fought the Confederacy would be withdrawn from the South and sent West to drive Indians from their ancestral lands.

It told us nothing about how Democrats and Republicans, while fencing with one another in election campaigns, would now join in subjecting working people all over the country to ruthless corporate power, how the United States army would be used to smash the great railroad strikes of 1877.

The video below is a student project and has its weaknesses. But it does demonstrate the role of the government in relation to the distribution of land to railroad trusts, the role of the military and the strikers, and the current state of the “labor movement” today which is surely not what the students see.

Zinn continues: These were the facts of race and class and Western expansion concealed behind the disputed election of 1877.

The pretense in disputed elections is that the great conflict is between the two major parties. The reality is that there is an unannounced war between those parties and large numbers of Americans who are represented by neither party.

The ferocity of the contest for the presidency in the current election conceals the agreement between both parties on fundamentals. Their heated disagreement is about who will preside over maintaining the status quo.

Whoever wins, there may be skirmishes between the major parties, but no monumental battles, despite the inflated rhetoric of the campaign. The evidence for this statement lies in eight years of the Clinton-Gore administration, whose major legislative accomplishments were part of the Republican agenda.

Both Gore and Bush have been in agreement on the continued corporate control of the economy. Neither has had a plan for free national health care, for extensive low-cost housing, for dramatic changes in environmental controls, for a minimum income for all Americans, for a truly progressive income tax to diminish the huge gap between rich and poor.

Both have supported the death penalty and the growth of prisons. Both believe in a large military establishment, in land mines and nuclear weapons and the cruel use of sanctions against the people of Cuba and Iraq. Both supported the wars against Panama, Iraq, and Yugoslavia.”

Hayes made a racist deal with Tilden. Hayes becomes president. He agrees to withdraw federal troops from the South.

Southern elites and racist white workers joined together to drive freed people off the land, into sharecropping relationships. The schools were closed.

Harsh laws were enacted, varying from state to state.

*Miscegenation-against inter-racial marriage

*Separate “but equal” schools where there was school at all.

*No integrated dining.

*No integrated drinking fountains

*No integrated bathrooms

*An 1850 California statute provided that “no black, mulatto person, or Indian, shall be allowed to give evidence in favor of, or against a white man. The law later included Chinese/

*Segregated housing and employment

*Bizarre tests for voting rights

Mississippi didn’t ratify the 13th Amendment until 2013

Black Codes were enforced for nearly 100 years–understanding that the north was as segregated and racist as the south in many ways.

Lynchings (a right of passage) grew to 187 a year from 1889 to 99.

This 1930 photo shows the lynching of Thomas Shipp and Abram Smith in Marion, Indiana. This image is a part of the “Without Sanctuary: Lynching Photography in America” exhibit.

The PBS series on the “Jim Crow” era is here:

Famous Northern Generals, made heroes by the Civil War efforts, went west to fight and kill Indians like William TECUMSEH Sherman, Little Phil Sheridan, and George Armstrong Custer.

 

But, things changed, just not as fast as they should have.

Lawyer and author Michelle Alexander believes there is a “New Jim Crow”

My colleague and friend, Roxanne Dunbar Ortiz wrote an excellent essay on what was to come next:

Dr. Roxanne Dunbar-Ortiz: “The great revolutionary movements in the US have largely been powered by African-American, Mexican-American, and Native-American resistance” 

We are nearly done with our class. If you are caught up in your reading responses and papers, great. If not–catch up. Of course, I will have to consider extremely late submissions and absenteeism in grading.

 

 

 

==========================================================================================

Class 19 (almost done!), History 100

Sign in! Sign In! Sign IN!!!

Rich Gibson, PhD. Pennsylvania State University

Emeritus Professor, SDSU

Professor, SWC

Please display name cards in each class.

Why are things as they are? We make our own history, but not in circumstances we chose.

“History doesn’t repeat itself, but it does rhyme.”
Mark Twain

May 7th and 8th

1763Pontiac’s War begins with Pontiac‘s attempt to seize Fort Detroit from the British.

1794French Revolution: Robespierre introduces the Cult of the Supreme Being in the National Convention as the new state religion of the French First Republic.

1915World War I: German submarine U-20 sinks RMS Lusitania, killing 1,198 people, including 128 Americans. Public reaction to the sinking turns many former pro-Germans in the United States against the German Empire.

Image result for sinking lusitania

1945 – World War II: General Alfred Jodl signs unconditional surrender terms at Reims, France, ending Germany’s participation in the war. The document takes effect the next day.

1954Indochina War: The Battle of Dien Bien Phu ends in a French defeat and a Vietnamese victory (the battle began on March 13).

1960Cold War: U-2 Crisis of 1960: Soviet leader Nikita Khrushchev announces that his nation is holding American U-2 pilot Gary Powers.

1972Vietnam War: U.S. President Richard Nixon announces his order to place naval mines in major North Vietnamese ports in order to stem the flow of weapons and other goods to that nation.

What is UP???

***ASO student body elections cancelled

***”Bomb Bomb Bomb, bomb bomb Iran”?

***Spy Museum Reopens!

***More?

Don’t be DOOMED! Catch up! Read the syllabu!

Picking up where we left off:

What were Southern (Confederates) advantages? Disadvantages?

What were Northern (Unionists) advantages and disadvantages?

Who would be positioned to tip the balance of forces?

How should Southern General Lee conduct this war, if he had read Sun Tzu?

How should Lincoln and his Generals conduct this war?

On to the  Civil War!

John Brown’s Raid on Harper’s Ferry and Lincoln’s election were key accelerators that started the Civil War. Below is W.E.B. Dubois who wrote the classic work on John Brown, correcting the “he was crazy” history that was taught until Dubois got it right. We will hear from Dubois again.

Image result for w e b dubois

Confederate States of America – Mississippi Secession

A Declaration of the Immediate Causes which Induce and Justify the Secession of the State of Mississippi from the Federal Union.

In the momentous step which our State has taken of dissolving its connection with the government of which we so long formed a part, it is but just that we should declare the prominent reasons which have induced our course.

Our position is thoroughly identified with the institution of slavery— the greatest material interest of the world. Its labor supplies the product which constitutes by far the largest and most important portions of commerce of the earth. These products are peculiar to the climate verging on the tropical regions, and by an imperious law of nature, none but the black race can bear exposure to the tropical sun. These products have become necessities of the world, and a blow at slavery is a blow at commerce and civilization.

That blow has been long aimed at the institution, and was at the point of reaching its consummation. There was no choice left us but submission to the mandates of abolition, or a dissolution of the Union, whose principles had been subverted to work out our ruin.

That we do not overstate the dangers to our institution, a reference to a few facts will sufficiently prove.

The hostility to this institution commenced before the adoption of the Constitution, and was manifested in the well-known Ordinance of 1787, in regard to the Northwestern Territory.

The feeling increased, until, in 1819-20, it deprived the South of more than half the vast territory acquired from France.

The same hostility dismembered Texas and seized upon all the territory acquired from Mexico.

It has grown until it denies the right of property in slaves, and refuses protection to that right on the high seas, in the Territories, and wherever the government of the United States had jurisdiction.  http://avalon.law.yale.edu/19th_century/csa_missec.asp

What were Southern (Confederates) advantages/disadvantages?

Northern?

The Civil War–a brief timeline:

1860

The results of the 1860 census show a total population of 31,183,582 including 3,950,528 slaves or 13% of the population.

Slaves equal 2% of the population in what would be Northern Aligned States and 39% in Southern Aligned States.

The total population for Northern Aligned States was 22,080,250 and for Southern Aligned States was 9,103,332.

In the Northern Aligned States 8% of the families owned slaves and 31% in the Southern Aligned States.

57% of the population in South Carolina were slaves and 49% of the families in Mississippi owned slaves.

November – Abraham Lincoln is elected president. Lincoln received 40% of the popular vote and won 59% of the Electoral votes. He was not even on the ballot in the deep south.

In his inaugural address, Lincoln denied he had a plan to free the slaves.

December – On December 20th the South Carolina convention passes ordinance of secession thus seceding from the Union. Note that S. Carolina was first. And S. Carolina was the first to engage the war.

Quickly, 11 states seceded to join the Confederacy

April 12, 1861: Confederates fire on Ft Sumter in S. Carolina. The Ft surrenders the next day.

 

April 15th – In Washington, President Lincoln issues a proclamation announcing an “insurrection,” and calls for 75,000 troops to be raised from the militia of the several States of the Union.

 

First Bull Run (Manassas) Spectators with boxed lunches!

July 21, 1861 – The Union Army under Gen. Irvin McDowell suffers a (shocking) defeat at Bull Run 25 miles southwest of Washington. Confederate Gen. Thomas J. Jackson earns the nickname “Stonewall,” as his brigade resists Union attacks. Union troops fall back to Washington.

President Lincoln realizes the war will be long. “It’s damned bad,” he comments.

September 11, 1861 – President Lincoln revokes Gen. John C. Frémont’s unauthorized military proclamation of emancipation in Missouri. Later, the president relieves Gen. Frémont of his command replaces him with Gen. David Hunter.

How Slavery Really Ended in America

General Benjamin Butler  May 23, 1861

“. “I am informed,” he said, “that three Negroes belonging to Colonel Mallory have escaped within your lines. I am Colonel Mallory’s agent and have charge of his property. What do you mean to do with those Negroes?”

“I intend to hold them,” Butler said.

“Do you mean, then, to set aside your constitutional obligation to return them?”

Even the dour Butler must have found it hard to suppress a smile. This was, of course, a question he had expected. And he had prepared what he thought was a fairly clever answer.

“I mean to take Virginia at her word,” he said. “I am under no constitutional obligations to a foreign country, which Virginia now claims to be.”

“But you say we cannot secede,” Cary retorted, “and so you cannot consistently detain the Negroes.”

“But you say you have seceded,” Butler said, “so you cannot consistently claim them. I shall hold these Negroes as contraband of war, since they are engaged in the construction of your battery and are claimed as your property.”

Ever the diligent litigator, Butler had been reading up on his military law. In time of war, he knew, a commander had a right to seize any enemy property that was being used for hostile purposes. The three fugitive slaves, before their escape, were helping build a Confederate gun emplacement. Very well, then — if the Southerners insisted on treating blacks as property, this Yankee lawyer would treat them as property, too. Legally speaking, he had as much justification to confiscate Baker, Mallory and Townsend as to intercept a shipment of muskets or swords.”

When Lincoln finally unveiled the Emancipation Proclamation in the fall of 1862, he framed it in Butleresque terms, not as a humanitarian gesture but as a stratagem of war. On the September day of Lincoln’s edict, a Union colonel ran into William Seward, the president’s canny secretary of state, on the street in Washington and took the opportunity to congratulate him on the administration’s epochal act.

Image result for william seward

Seward snorted. “Yes,” he said, “we have let off a puff of wind over an accomplished fact.”

“What do you mean, Mr. Seward?” the officer asked.

“I mean,” the secretary replied, “that the Emancipation Proclamation was uttered in the first gun fired at Sumter, and we have been the last to hear it.”

February 6, 1862 – Victory for Gen. Ulysses S. Grant in Tennessee, capturing Fort Henry, and ten days later Fort Donelson. Grant earns the nickname “Unconditional Surrender” Grant.

February 20, 1862 – President Lincoln is struck with grief as his beloved eleven-year-old son, Willie, dies from fever, probably caused by polluted drinking water in the White House.

March 8/9, 1862 – The Confederate Ironclad ‘Merrimack’ sinks two wooden Union ships then battles the Union Ironclad ‘Monitor’ to a draw. Naval warfare is thus changed forever, making wooden ships obsolete.

Shiloh

There is a 20 minute “Animated Map” of Shiloh here:

https://www.battlefields.org/learn/maps/shiloh-animated-map

April 6/7, 1862 – Confederate surprise attack on Gen. Ulysses S. Grant’s unprepared troops at Shiloh on the Tennessee River results in a bitter struggle with 13,000 Union killed and wounded and 10,000 Confederates, more men than in all previous American wars combined. The president is then pressured to relieve Grant but resists. “I can’t spare this man; he fights,” Lincoln says.

April 24, 1862 – 17 Union ships under the command of Flag Officer David Farragut move up the Mississippi River then take New Orleans, the South’s greatest seaport. Later in the war, sailing through a Rebel mine field Farragut utters the famous phrase “Damn the torpedoes, full speed ahead!”

Second Battle of Bull Run

August 29/30, 1862 – 75,000 Federals under Gen. John Pope are defeated by 55,000 Confederates under Gen. Stonewall Jackson and Gen. James Longstreet at the second battle of Bull Run in northern Virginia. Once again the Union Army retreats to Washington. The president then relieves Pope. Jackson is below.

September 4-9, 1862 – Lee invades the North with 50,000 Confederates and heads for Harpers Ferry, located 50 miles northwest of Washington.

The Union Army, 90,000 strong, under the command of McClellan, pursues Lee.

Antietam

There is a 15 minute “Battle of Antietam Animated Map” here:

https://www.battlefields.org/learn/maps/antietam-animated-map

September 17, 1862 – The bloodiest day in U.S. military history as Gen. Robert E. Lee and the Confederate Armies are stopped at Antietam in Maryland by McClellan and numerically superior Union forces. By nightfall 26,000 men are dead, wounded, or missing. Lee then withdraws to Virginia.

1863

January 1, 1863 – President Lincoln issues the final Emancipation Proclamation freeing all slaves in territories held by Confederates and emphasizes the enlisting of black soldiers in the Union Army. The war to preserve the Union now becomes a revolutionary struggle for the abolition of slavery.

January 29, 1863 – Gen. Grant is placed in command of the Army of the West, with orders to capture Vicksburg.

March 3, 1863 – The U.S. Congress enacts a draft, affecting male citizens aged 20 to 45, but also exempts those who pay $300 or provide a substitute. “The blood of a poor man is as precious as that of the wealthy,” poor Northerners complain.

Chancellorsville

May 1-4, 1863 – The Union Army under Gen. Hooker is decisively defeated by Lee’s much smaller forces at the Battle of Chancellorsville in Virginia as a result of Lee’s “brilliant and daring” tactics. Confederate Gen. Stonewall Jackson is mortally wounded by his own soldiers. Hooker retreats. Union losses are 17,000 killed, wounded and missing out of 130,000. The Confederates, 13, 000 out of 60,000.

“I just lost confidence in Joe Hooker,” said Hooker later about his own lack of nerve during the battle.  Hooker is where “hooker” comes from.

Gettysburg

July 1-3, 1863 – The tide of war turns against the South as the Confederates are defeated at the Battle of Gettysburg in Pennsylvania.

The Confederate Army of Northern Virginia
70,100 men and 280 guns commanded by General Robert E. Lee

vs.
The Federal Army of the Potomac

93,700 men and 372 guns commanded by Major General George G. Meade
The armies at the Battle of Gettysburg included regiments and batteries from 12 Southern and 18 Northern states. Both armies had units from Maryland.

Casualty counts at Gettysburg are estimates: total around 50,000 total, dead and wounded, for both sides.

July 4, 1863 – Vicksburg, the last Confederate stronghold on the Mississippi River, surrenders to Gen. Grant and the Army of the West after a six week siege. With the Union now in control of the Mississippi, the Confederacy is effectively split in two, cut off from its western allies.

July 13-16, 1863 – Anti-draft riots in New York City include arson and the murder of blacks by poor immigrant whites. At least 120 persons, including children, are killed and $2 million in damage caused, until Union soldiers returning from Gettysburg restore order.

July 18, 1863 – ‘Negro troops’ of the 54th Massachusetts Infantry Regiment under Col. Robert G. Shaw assault fortified Rebels at Fort Wagner, South Carolina. Col. Shaw and half of the 600 men in the regiment are killed.

August 10, 1863 – The president meets with abolitionist Frederick Douglass who pushes for full equality for Union ‘Negro troops.’

Image result for frederick douglass

Lincoln’s purpose for the war changed over time, from preserving the nation to ending slavery. Why?

August 21, 1863 – At Lawrence, Kansas, pro-Confederate William C. Quantrill and 450 pro-slavery followers again raid the town and butcher 182 boys and men.

November 19, 1863 – President Lincoln delivers a two minute Gettysburg Address at a ceremony dedicating the Battlefield as a National Cemetery.

Image result for gettysburg address

Even Before the Emancipation Proclamation went into effect, the slaves began to free themselves, one of the key turning points of the Civil War, supplying the Northern Armies, denying the South the labor they had relied upon for life itself. By war’s end, nearly 200,000 formerly enslaved people joined the US military. Below is a presentation using the Common Core standards now typically in use in American schools.

1864

March 9, 1864 – President Lincoln appoints Gen. Grant to command all of the armies of the United States.

Grant begins the “Overland Campaign.”  His army outnumbers Lee’s two to one. They begin to clash near Richmond. More than 80,000 men were killed, wounded or missing during the Overland Campaign.

Gen. William T. Sherman succeeds Grant as commander in the west.

Image result for sherman war is hell

May 4, 1864 – The beginning of a massive, coordinated campaign involving all the Union Armies.

In Virginia, Grant with an Army of 120,000 begins advancing toward Richmond to engage Lee’s Army of Northern Virginia, now numbering 64,000, beginning a war of attrition that will include major battles at the Wilderness (May 5-6), Spotsylvania (May 8-12), and Cold Harbor (June 1-3).

In the west, Sherman, with 70,000 to 100,000 men, hardened combat veterans,  begins an advance toward Atlanta to engage Joseph E. Johnston’s 60,000 strong Army of Tennessee.

August 29, 1864 – Democrats nominate George B. McClellan for president to run against Republican incumbent Abraham Lincoln.

September 2, 1864 – Atlanta is captured by Sherman’s Army. “Atlanta is ours, and fairly won,” Sherman telegraphs Lincoln. The victory greatly helps President Lincoln’s bid for re-election.

November 8, 1864 – Abraham Lincoln is re-elected president, defeating Democrat George B. McClellan.

March to the Sea

November 15, 1864 – After destroying Atlanta’s warehouses and railroad facilities, Sherman, with 62,000 men begins a March to the Sea. President Lincoln on advice from Grant approved the idea. “I can make Georgia howl!” Sherman boasts.

Image result for sherman make the south scream

Below, Sherman’s “indirect approach” as chronicled by B.H. Liddle Hart

Image result for sherman's necktie civil war

Above, Sherman’s “Neckties.” It’s  Total War.

December 21, 1864 – Sherman reaches Savannah in Georgia leaving behind a 300 mile long path of destruction 60 miles wide all the way from Atlanta. Sherman then telegraphs Lincoln, offering him Savannah as a Christmas present.

Sherman famously said, “War is hell.”

Proof that history is a battleground itself, the two videos below on Sherman’s strategic and tactical brilliance (my side of the story).

Note that Sherman deliberately bypassed the notorious Andersonville Prison.

1865

January 31, 1865 – The U.S. Congress approves the Thirteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution, to abolish slavery. The amendment is then submitted to the states for ratification.

March 4, 1865 – Inauguration ceremonies for President Lincoln in Washington. “With malice toward none; with charity for all…let us strive on to finish the work we are in…to do all which may achieve and cherish a just, and a lasting peace, among ourselves, and with all nations,” Lincoln says.

April 4, 1865 – President Lincoln tours Richmond where he enters the Confederate White House. With “a serious, dreamy expression,” he sits at the desk of Jefferson Davis for a few moments.

Lee Surrenders

April 9, 1865 – Gen. Robert E. Lee surrenders his Confederate Army to Gen. Ulysses S. Grant at the village of Appomattox Court House in Virginia. Grant allows Rebel officers to keep their sidearms and permits soldiers to keep horses and mules.

Lincoln Shot

April 14, 1865 – The Stars and Stripes is ceremoniously raised over Fort Sumter. That night, Lincoln and his wife Mary see the play “Our American Cousin” at Ford’s Theater.

At 10:13 p.m., during the third act of the play, John Wilkes Booth shoots the president in the head. Doctors attend to the president in the theater then move him to a house across the street. He never regains consciousness.

April 15, 1865 – President Abraham Lincoln dies at 7:22 in the morning. Vice President Andrew Johnson assumes the presidency.

December 6, 1865 – The Thirteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution, passed by Congress on January 31, 1865, is finally ratified. Slavery is abolished. But…we shall see…

Herman Melville wrote “The Martyr” when Lincoln was killed

There is sobbing of the strong,
And a pall upon the land;
But the People in their weeping
Bare the iron hand:
Beware the People weeping
When they bare the iron hand.

He lieth in his blood—
The father in his face;
They have killed him, the Forgiver—
The Avenger takes his place,
The Avenger wisely stern,
Who in righteousness shall do
What the heavens call him to,
And the parricides remand;
For they killed him in his kindness
In their madness and their blindness,
And his blood is on their hand.

There is sobbing of the strong,
And a pall upon the land;
But the People in their weeping
Bare the iron hand:
Beware the People weeping
When they bare the iron hand.

At the end of the war, the US arrested and tried the commander of the Andersonville concentration camp.

Of the 45,000 Union soldiers who’d been held at Andersonville Confederate prison during the American Civil War, 13,000 died. During the worst months, 100 men died each day from malnutrition, exposure to the elements, and communicable disease.

Its stockade, in which prisoners were detained, measured 1,600 feet by 780 feet, and was designed to hold a maximum of 10,000 prisoners.

The prisoners arrived before the barracks were built and so lived with virtually no protection from the blistering Georgia sun or the long winter rains. Food rations were a small portion of raw corn or meat, which was often eaten uncooked because there was almost no wood for fires. The only water supply was a stream that first trickled through a Confederate army camp, then pooled to form a swamp inside the stockade. It provided the only source of water for drinking, bathing, cooking, and sewage.(2)

On the scaffold, Wirz reportedly said to the officer in charge, “I know what orders are, Major. I am being hanged for obeying them.”(3)

Jefferson Davis, Robert E. Lee, and other top leaders of the Confederacy were never tried for treason, war crimes or anything, although Lee’s former plantation, Arlington, became a cemetery where the US buries its war dead.

New York Times of the day on the hanging of Wirz :  http://www.nytimes.com/1865/11/11/news/execution-wirz-closing-scenes-life-andersonville-jailor-farewell-interview-with.html?pagewanted=all

Following the South’s surrender, the US passed “The Reconstruction Amendments” to the Constitution.

13th, 14th, and 15th Amendments

Synopsis

The Thirteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution officially abolished and continues to prohibit slavery to this day.

The Fourteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution declared that all persons born or naturalized in the United States are American citizens including African Americans.

The Fifteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution prohibits each government in the United States from denying a citizen the right to vote based on that citizen’s race, color, or previous condition of servitude.

Catch UP!!!! Dont’ be DOOOMED!

  1. http://www.historyplace.com/civilwar/

2. http://www.saturdayeveningpost.com/2014/02/27/history/post-perspective/american-atrocity-the-andersonville-prison-camp.html

 

3.  http://www.history.com/this-day-in-history/henry-wirz-hanged

 

========================================================================================================

Class 18, History 100

Sign in! Sign In! Sign IN!!!

Rich Gibson, PhD. Pennsylvania State University

Emeritus Professor, SDSU

Professor, SWC

Please display name cards in each class.

Why are things as they are? We make our own history, but not in circumstances we chose.

Image result for castro history will absolve me

Condemn me, it does not matter, history will absolve me. Fidel Castro (on trial in  1953). The Cuban “revolution” won in 1

May 2

1863American Civil War: Stonewall Jackson is wounded by friendly fire while returning to camp after reconnoitering 959)during the Battle of Chancellorsville. He succumbs to pneumonia eight days later.

Stonewall Jackson by Routzahn, 1862.png

1945 – World War II: The US 82nd Airborne Division liberates Wöbbelin concentration camp finding 1000 dead prisoners, most of whom starved to death.

1945 – World War II: A death march from Dachau to the Austrian border is halted by the segregated, all-Nisei 522nd Field Artillery Battalion of the U.S. Army in southern Bavaria, saving several hundred prisoners.

1982Falklands War: The British nuclear submarine HMS Conqueror sinks the Argentine cruiser ARA General Belgrano.

Falklands War timeline map

2011Osama bin Laden, the suspected mastermind behind the September 11 attacks and the FBI‘s most wanted man, is killed by the United States special forces in Abbottabad, Pakistan.

Above, short clip from “Arsenic and Old Lace.”

Our Phantasmagoric Agenda 18

1. May 4th in Patriotic China

*Mayday Protests world wide–but barely a whimper in USA.

More?

2. Working through our Pending Questions:

What is history?

What are the competing standpoints on historiography?

How to spot lies?

How do things change, if they do?

Why Have Government? What is the History of governments?

What is tyranny? How do masters rule? How do people resist?

What is a revolution? Why and how do they happen?

What is capitalism?

Imperialism?

Socialism?

Communism?

Racism? History?

Fascism?

How do ideas become material forces, if they do at all?

Ponzi scheme?

How shall we treat religion?

Why do people move?

How to do college and where to go?

Picking up where we left off:

The Pottawatomie Creek Massacre (May 24th, 1856)

Well portrayed, IMHO, in the PBS Video below but PBS has the entire series “down.”

https://www.pbs.org/video/american-experience-pottawatomie-massacre/

Osawatomie John Brown

John Brown was hanged (captured by slaver Robert E. Lee)  on Dec 2 1859 

The video below, by the Virginia Historical Society, is a good example of a biased history that seeks to offer, “on the one hand this, and on the other hand that,” when it disguises support for slavery.

The video below, by the Voice of America (read CIA) follows the same indecisive path as the film above.

In 1859 Abe Lincoln and Stephen Douglass ran for Senate. They engaged in a serious of famous debates. Lincoln lost this election but became famous because of it.

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=t35HMmpnIaI
Lincoln was elected in November, 1860 with a plurality of votes
“The irrepressible conflict is about to be visited upon us through the Black Republican nominee and his fanatical, diabolical, Republican party.” Virginia slave-owner. (Beards, Chapter 15)
Confederate States of America – Mississippi Secession

A Declaration of the Immediate Causes which Induce and Justify the Secession of the State of Mississippi from the Federal Union.

In the momentous step which our State has taken of dissolving its connection with the government of which we so long formed a part, it is but just that we should declare the prominent reasons which have induced our course.

Our position is thoroughly identified with the institution of slavery— the greatest material interest of the world. Its labor supplies the product which constitutes by far the largest and most important portions of commerce of the earth. These products are peculiar to the climate verging on the tropical regions, and by an imperious law of nature, none but the black race can bear exposure to the tropical sun. These products have become necessities of the world, and a blow at slavery is a blow at commerce and civilization. That blow has been long aimed at the institution, and was at the point of reaching its consummation. There was no choice left us but submission to the mandates of abolition, or a dissolution of the Union, whose principles had been subverted to work out our ruin.

That we do not overstate the dangers to our institution, a reference to a few facts will sufficiently prove.

The hostility to this institution commenced before the adoption of the Constitution, and was manifested in the well-known Ordinance of 1787, in regard to the Northwestern Territory.

The feeling increased, until, in 1819-20, it deprived the South of more than half the vast territory acquired from France.

The same hostility dismembered Texas and seized upon all the territory acquired from Mexico.

It has grown until it denies the right of property in slaves, and refuses protection to that right on the high seas, in the Territories, and wherever the government of the United States had jurisdiction.  http://avalon.law.yale.edu/19th_century/csa_missec.asp

Marx and Engels studied the Civil War with great care. Marx published many, many articles in Northern newspapers.

https://www.marxists.org/archive/marx/works/1861/us-civil-war/index.htm

What were Southern (Confederates) advantages? Disadvantages?

What were Northern (Unionists) advantages and disadvantages?

Who would be positioned to tip the balance of forces?

How should Southern General Lee conduct this war, if he had read Sun Tzu?

How should Lincoln and his Generals conduct this war?

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

========================================================================================================

Class 17, History 100

Sign in! Sign In! Sign IN!!!

Rich Gibson, PhD. Pennsylvania State University

Emeritus Professor, SDSU

Professor, SWC

Please display name cards in each class.

Why are things as they are? We make our own history, but not in circumstances we chose.

Our Phantasmagoric Agenda#17

I appreciated the demonstration of CLASS SOLIDARITY on Thursday.

The ordinary historian simply memorizes answers. The wise historian asks radical, to the root, questions.

April 29, 30, and May 1

44 Years since the US FLED Vietnam (after 74 years of war vs the Vietnamese—started in 1945)

1803Louisiana Purchase: The United States purchases the Louisiana Territory from France for $15 million, more than doubling the size of the young nation.

1945 – Dachau concentration camp is liberated by United States troops.

Related image

1945 – World War II: Führerbunker: Adolf Hitler and Eva Braun commit suicide after being married for less than 40 hours. Soviet soldiers raise the Victory Banner over the Reichstag building.

1967 – After refusing induction into the United States Army the previous day, Muhammad Ali is stripped of his boxing title.

http://www.espn.com/videohub/video/clip/_/id/19263787/categoryid/clip?id=25818575

1970Vietnam War: United States and South Vietnamese forces invade Cambodia to hunt Viet Cong.[4]    See the work of Alfred McCoy for information on the CIA, the drug trade, and the funding of this illegal war. And now–Afghanistan….

1974Watergate scandal: United States President Richard Nixon announces the release of edited transcripts of White House tape recordings relating to the scandal.

2004 – U.S. media release graphic photos of American soldiers abusing and sexually humiliating Iraqi prisoners at Abu Ghraib prison.

Image result for abu ghraib torture

Image result for abu ghraib torture

1992Riots in Los Angeles, following the acquittal of police officers charged with excessive force in the beating of Rodney King. Over the next three days 63 people are killed and hundreds of buildings are destroyed.

Tomorrow is Mayday, the International Workers Holiday

Preamble to the IWW Constitution

The working class and the employing class have nothing in common. There can be no peace so long as hunger and want are found among millions of the working people and the few, who make up the employing class, have all the good things of life.

Between these two classes a struggle must go on until the workers of the world organize as a class, take possession of the means of production, abolish the wage system, and live in harmony with the Earth.

We find that the centering of the management of industries into fewer and fewer hands makes the trade unions unable to cope with the ever growing power of the employing class. The trade unions foster a state of affairs which allows one set of workers to be pitted against another set of workers in the same industry, thereby helping defeat one another in wage wars. Moreover, the trade unions aid the employing class to mislead the workers into the belief that the working class have interests in common with their employers.

These conditions can be changed and the interest of the working class upheld only by an organization formed in such a way that all its members in any one industry, or in all industries if necessary, cease work whenever a strike or lockout is on in any department thereof, thus making an injury to one an injury to all.   https://www.iww.org/culture/official/preamble.shtml

Image result for iww pyramid

!. What is UP?

***Only Little People Pay Taxes: Leona Helmsley. Amazon paid $0.00

http://2.bp.blogspot.com/-4M0MzlxXrTE/VRrO0-01YYI/AAAAAAAADkc/BvmvyOlU-0I/s1600/the-little-people.jpg

****Japan: “Emperor” steps aside.

Image result for japan hirohito

***Venezuela

***China gig workers want shorter hours, more pay.

***More?

2. The period we are entering, the 1840’s and 1850’s saw the rise of socialist and communist movements. With Mayday tomorrow, we can use this timely chance to learn what they are.

   What is Socialism? Communism?

Image result for marx engels

Much of this is drawn from Engles’ “Socialism, Utopian and Scientific.” And the “Communist Manifesto” by Marx and Engles.

Socialism is the result of a revolution. There is no such thing as a non-violent revolution (Chalmers Johnson).

Socialism in the absence of a revolution is not socialism.

It may be social/bourgeoisie democracy (meaning elites still control the means of production–but more gently), as in Sweden or Venezuela, but socialism means the working class is in power in all aspects of economic and political life. That is  not possible without a revolution.

Absent a revolution that puts the majority, poor and working people, in control of every aspect of government, the appearances of socialism can be easily reversed. For example, the forty hour week, won by mass worker uprisings in the US in the thirties, has been washed away.

Socialism presumes government, the state, continues to exist; a dictatorship, not of the rich, but of the workers and other formerly oppressed people.

This is called the “dictatorship of the proletariat” (extended, this means the workers, peasants, soldiers, etc.),” as distinct from the dictatorship of the capitalists.

Socialism uses its government to apply varying methods to socialize, commune-alize, equalize, production and social life.

Socialism is a stage that Marx and Engles believed could lay the basis for greater and greater equality and democracy (democracy in the absence of generalized equality is always counterfeit).

Once general equality is reached, there is theoretically no need for a state, a government, and when the state “withers away,” communism is won.

Communism means there is no longer a need for a government, a state.

The dictatorship of the proletariat presumes leadership of a party which typically led the revolution.

Socialism has used the Paris Commune of 1871 as an example.

( https://www.marxists.org/history/erol/ncm‑5/rcp‑paris‑commune.htm)

Key lessons of the Commune: Immediate recall of elected leaders, direct elections, no elected leader paid more than average worker, workers paid approximately the same, an armed populace.

What countries are or have been socialist?

USSR (briefly, quickly destroyed by the “New Economic Policy” –see below), and China, briefly, “New Democracy.” Maybe Cuba, Albania, Soviet satellite states in Eastern. Europe.

Socialism’s slogan: from each according to their work to each according to their need.

Problems that led to the failure of socialism so far:

***Theory of Productive Forces.

In brief, beginning with the Russian (Bolshevik Party) revolution, the first of its kind, the backwardness of mostly peasant Russian (which became the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics) coupled with the destructiveness of the revolution and subsequent Civil War (the USSR was invaded by every empire, including the USA) meant the productive forces (factories, science labs, water supply–everything) were in terrible shape.

The Bolsheviks had also believed that their Russian Revolution would lead to revolutions in Europe, expanding their base of support. Those revolutions never happened. In wealthy Germany, an attempted revolution was crushed.

Image result for Lenin

Lenin, who forced through the Russian Revolution, theorized that it was necessary to recruit scientists, technicians, bureaucrats, and other specialists in order to build up a base  of abundance which could be shared out for more equality in the distant future.

He wrote the “New Economic Policy,” (NEP) which openly restored capitalism to the USSR in the early 1920s.

The NEP offered those specialists higher pay, more privileges, etc.

In order to keep this new class of people in check, the Bolsheviks determined that the party leadership needed to be paid more, offered more privileges, than the specialists–hence another new ruling class–sitting on top of an openly declared capitalist government.

The party became a dictatorship with one man, Joe Stalin, sitting on top.

Image result for napoleon

This followed a pattern, set by Napoleon following the French Revolution. It’s called “Thermidor,” (from the French Revolution, meaning counter-revolution) a failed revolution leading to a one-man dictatorship.

I call that social-fascism, somewhat distinct from German or Japanese fascism.

After the much longer revolution in China was victorious in 1949, Mao led the Chinese to “New Democracy,” modeled directly after the NEP. Mao became dictator and lived like god.

Image result for mao gold

In the mid-sixties, the “Cultural Revolution” in China sought to overturn the “Capitalist Roaders” in the Chinese Communist Party. It is unclear if the “CCR” was started by Mao himself, or if a leftist movement in China initiated it.

Image result for mao long march

In either case, after years of upheaval (which improved the lives of millions of peasants and also killed many innocents) the Cultural Revolution was crushed by the not-so-red Army.

Since then, China, clearly a capitalist dictatorship run by a bogus “Communist” Party, has advanced rapidly and is developing into a world capitalist empire challenging the US and the world.

In both cases, of Russian and China, inequality was deliberately, openly, re-established capitalism with the party at top.

***Using the NEP as a starting point, Lenin late in life said socialism is: “Taylorism with the  party– plus electricity. In other words, socialism is efficient workers coupled with modern forms of power, owned by the party dictatorship–serving only the party.

***No fake “socialist” country sought to overturn Nationalism, while Marx said, “workers of all countries unite, you have nothing to lose but your chains.”

This anti-Marxist move was achieved in part by claiming “rights of national self-determination.” If that is to always be honored, the US south would be another country today.

Image result for stalin

Stalin soon declared he was building, “Socialism in One Country,” upending any pretense of Marxist internationalism.

***Cults of personality. Stalinism (quickly above criticism–with death and gulags as penalties) became fascism. Maoism became fascism. Castro was a dictator. Now his brother is a dictator.

***Stalin in the mid 1930’s claimed class struggle ended in the USSR (but socialism presumes the state still exists because classes still exist). So, Stalin abolished class struggle in practice.

At the same time, he wiped out the “negation of negation” (meaning endless change) in Soviet philosophy. Stalin, thus, abolished class struggle in Soviet theory.

By 1935, Stalin had killed all the old Bolsheviks who led the Russian Revolution.

***Education (start with checking for segregation) is always a bellwether. If no criticism of the party is allowed, if exploited labor and battles for empire are seen as so normal, they are invisible, that’s probably not what Marx and Engles meant by socialism.

Communism has never existed inside any given state. Communism presumes the state has withered away because general equality exists.

Communist slogan: From each according to ability to each according to need.

Communism has existed, however, within revolutionary movements and to one degree or another within utopian communes. Utopian communes never survive long within capitalism. 

For example, the Chinese red army was a more or less communist force. It operated on principals outlined by the Paris Commune (above) and involved millions of people.

Class war, within nations, and empire’s wars between nations, persists.

People will fight back. At issue: will they grasp why they fight back and, maybe, win, or will they fight ghosts and phantoms and petty reforms alone–and lose—again?

The “Communist Manifesto” is online here:  https://www.marxists.org/archive/marx/works/1848/communist‑manifesto/

“Socialism, Utopian and Scientific” is online here: https://www.marxists.org/archive/marx/works/1880/soc‑utop/index.htm

@Rich Gibson 2018

Picking up where we left off with short review:

Remember, the US extended across the continent after the war with Mexico ended in the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo in 1948.

Again, a “Lucky” nation, not an indespensable one.

 

But–The PANIC of 1857!

This was the first international economic collapse, indicating the sweep of the combination of capitalism and empire.

It initially began in Britain where banks, having promised that their currency was backed by gold, proved to not have sufficient gold.

The panic came to the US in the form of the collapse of insurance companies, then banks.

Causes? Speculation in stocks by elites who didn’t have the cash to cover their debts in the case of a downturn and, secondly, overproduction in industry and finance.

As banks crises spread, key railroad companies (keep in mind that the railroads, the vital arteries of transport that more than matched the river ways, were subsidized the government funds and land grants) began to lay off workers.

Farmers, who had overextended by speculating on, especially, land purchases, were unable to sell their crops or get loans,. They began to fail and default on bank loans, which put even more pressure on the banks.

Because the South had far fewer railroads, and it’s plantation elites had not over-extended like Northerners (especially in the Midwest), southerners began to believe that the North would recognize the necessity of slavery and the inextricable unity of the two sections of the nation–for profits.

Image result for president buchanan

President James Buchanan (1857-1861), the President immediately before the Civil War, believed his efforts to manipulate paper currency were important to ending the panic, which really only ended with the war.

Buchanan makes the not-terribly-scholarly list of “Most Racist Presidents” because of his support for the Dred Scott Decision and his refusal to halt the spread of slavery to the western territories, one prime cause of the Civil War.   https://www.cheatsheet.com/culture/most-racist-presidents-including-donald-trump.html/

Abolitionists and Radical Republicans

Thadeus Stevens

Stevens was an ardent abolitionist who championed the rights of blacks for decades—up to, during, and after the Civil War.

With other Radical Republicans, he agitated for emancipation, black fighting units, and black suffrage. After the war, he favored dividing up Southern plantations among the freed slaves, embracing William Tecumseh Sherman’s “forty acres and a mule.”

Pro-slavery forces (“bushwackers” who demean the term “guerrilla”) led by William Quantrill raided from Missouri into Kansas, burning Lawrence. Among Quantrill’s band were Jesse and Frank James, later famous criminals.

 

The Pottawatomie Creek Massacre (May 24th, 1856)

Well portrayed, IMHO, in the PBS Video below but PBS has the entire series “down.”

https://www.pbs.org/video/american-experience-pottawatomie-massacre/

Osawatomie John Brown

John Brown was hanged (captured by slaver Robert E. Lee)  on Dec 2 1859 

The video below, by the Virginia Historical Society, is a good example of a biased history that seeks to offer, “on the one hand this, and on the other hand that,” when it disguises support for slavery.

The video below, by the Voice of America (read CIA) follows the same indecisive path as the film above.

Lincoln was elected in November, 1860

Confederate States of America – Mississippi Secession

A Declaration of the Immediate Causes which Induce and Justify the Secession of the State of Mississippi from the Federal Union.

In the momentous step which our State has taken of dissolving its connection with the government of which we so long formed a part, it is but just that we should declare the prominent reasons which have induced our course.

Our position is thoroughly identified with the institution of slavery— the greatest material interest of the world. Its labor supplies the product which constitutes by far the largest and most important portions of commerce of the earth. These products are peculiar to the climate verging on the tropical regions, and by an imperious law of nature, none but the black race can bear exposure to the tropical sun. These products have become necessities of the world, and a blow at slavery is a blow at commerce and civilization. That blow has been long aimed at the institution, and was at the point of reaching its consummation. There was no choice left us but submission to the mandates of abolition, or a dissolution of the Union, whose principles had been subverted to work out our ruin.

That we do not overstate the dangers to our institution, a reference to a few facts will sufficiently prove.

The hostility to this institution commenced before the adoption of the Constitution, and was manifested in the well-known Ordinance of 1787, in regard to the Northwestern Territory.

The feeling increased, until, in 1819-20, it deprived the South of more than half the vast territory acquired from France.

The same hostility dismembered Texas and seized upon all the territory acquired from Mexico.

It has grown until it denies the right of property in slaves, and refuses protection to that right on the high seas, in the Territories, and wherever the government of the United States had jurisdiction.  http://avalon.law.yale.edu/19th_century/csa_missec.asp

What were Southern (Confederates) advantages? Disadvantages?

What were Northern (Unionists) advantages and disadvantages?

Who would be positioned to tip the balance of forces?

Pending Questions

What is history?

What are the competing standpoints on historiography?

How to spot lies?

How do things change, if they do?

Why Have Government? What is the History of governments?

What is tyranny? How do masters rule? How do people resist?

What is a revolution? Why and how do they happen?

What is capitalism?

Imperialism?

Socialism?

Communism?

Racism? History?

How do ideas become material forces, if they do at all?

Ponzi scheme?

How shall we treat religion?

Why do people move?

How to do college and where to go

 

_________________________________________________________________________________

 

 

======================================================================================================

Class 16, History 100

Sign in! Sign In! Sign IN!!!

Rich Gibson, PhD. Pennsylvania State University

Emeritus Professor, SDSU

Professor, SWC

Please display name cards in each class.

Why are things as they are? We make our own history, but not in circumstances we chose.

Our Phantasmagoric Agenda#16

The historic ascent of humanity, taken as a whole, may be summarized as a succession of victories of consciousness over blind forces – in nature, in society, in man himself. Leon Trotsky

April 25th

1898Spanish–American War: The United States declares war on Spain. The empire expands. Some historians  treat this war as the first indication of US imperialism. They forgot earlier eras.

“…the Treaty of Paris officially ended the Spanish-American War. The once-proud Spanish empire was virtually dissolved as the United States took over much of Spain’s overseas holdings. Puerto Rico and Guam were ceded to the United States, the Philippines were bought for $20 million, and Cuba became a U.S. protectorate. Philippine insurgents who fought against Spanish rule during the war immediately turned their guns against the new occupiers, and 10 times more U.S. troops died suppressing the Philippines than in defeating Spain.”

Image result for remember the maine

1975 – As North Vietnamese forces close in on the South Vietnamese capital Saigon, the Australian Embassy is closed and evacuated, almost ten years to the day since the first Australian troop commitment to South Vietnam.

2014 – Flint, Michigan switches its water source, beginning the Flint water crisis.

https://thehill.com/hilltv/rising/440208-filmmaker-says-flint-water-crisis-has-become-normalized

Our Agenda

What is up?

***Two US Aircraft Carriers are now in the Mediterranean Sea, challenging the Russians.

Movie Review: “Aircraft Carrier”   https://richgibson.com/AircraftCarrier.htm

***Kim Whoever is in Russia Meeting with Vlad Putin (and Trump is???)

Image result for kim putin cartoon

***What lesson should Kim of North Korea learn from Ghaddifi of Libya (now deceased)?

 

Picking up where we left off:

Depressions followed booms in 1815-19, 32-37, 49-60

Elite slavers were doing well. They had every economic reason to keep slavery.

Slavery and Industrialization—feudalist slavers had no reason to invest in industry.

South dependent on north for industry and capital./markets

Slavery WAS very, very, profitable.

Texas would come to open to slavery, and of course Texican slaves suffered.

South was underdeveloped, no incentive for slaves or big owners to work hard.

Lack of education for poor whites and black people both north and south, but literacy reached far more people in the north.

The South; a society divided by race and class.

The North is also divided by race and class.

Women are third class citizens. 

The North exists in a contradictory relationship with the south.

Unity in the sense that many, many northerners were involved in the slave trade (shippers, boat builders, bankers, etc.) and while many northern workers were racists, it was clear that a move west for slavery would mean lower wages everywhere.

Second Contradiction:: abolitionists of all kinds, evangelicals to atheists, had a dramatic impact over time, even if racism remained popular.

What defeats men with guns?

Nate Knight http://www.natchezbelle.org/ahgp-ms/jones/secession2.htm

Doubling the size of the USA: Mexico and Manifest Destiny

above, “His Most Serene Highness” Santa Anna the disastrous president or military dictator of Mexico 11 times. He’s credited with losing Texas and nearly 1/2 of Mexico’s territory.

Davy Crockett, Jim Bowie, Colonel Travis at The Alamo:

 

Crockett’s favorite slogans:

“Be sure you are right; then go ahead.”

“You may go to hell, and I will go to Texas.”

In Section 9 of the General Provisions of the Constitution of the Republic of Texas, it is stated how the new republic would resolve their greatest problem under Mexican rule: “All persons of color who were slaves for life previous to their emigration to Texas, and who are now held in bondage, shall remain in the like state of servitude … Congress shall pass no laws to prohibit emigrants from bringing their slaves into the republic with them, and holding them by the same tenure by which such slaves were held in the United States; nor shall congress have power to emancipate slaves.”

Mexico had in fact abolished slavery in 1829  (HNN)

 

3. Sectional Crises in the US and the run up top to the Civil War

a.  Ideological and Material differences (abolition and land)

b. The Missouri Compromise of 1820 (Maine/Missouri–free/slave) set aside by–

d. The Kansas Nebraska Act 1854

  Fugitive Slave Act of 1850

For decades before 1850, many men and women who escaped from slavery were able to avoid being captured and returned to their owners, but the Fugitive Slave Act, part of the Compromise of 1850, empowered federal officials to assist owners seeking to reclaim runaway slaves.

1856: Senator Charles Sumner (Republican) was attacked in  the Senate  by Representative Preston Brooks (D-SC): Southern “code of honor” applied for speech Sumner gave in favor of a free Kansas

The PANIC of 1857

This was the first international economic collapse, indicating the sweep of the combination of capitalism and empire.

It initially began in Britain where banks, having promised that their currency was backed by gold, proved to not have sufficient gold.

The panic came to the US in the form of the collapse of insurance companies, then banks.

Causes? Speculation in stocks by elites who didn’t have the cash to cover their debts in the case of a downturn and, secondly, overproduction in industry and finance.

As banks crises spread, key railroad companies (keep in mind that the railroads, the vital arteries of transport that more than matched the river ways, were subsidized the government funds and land grants) began to lay off workers.

Farmers, who had overextended by speculating on, especially, land purchases, were unable to sell their crops or get loans,. They began to fail and default on bank loans, which put even more pressure on the banks.

Because the South had far fewer railroads, and it’s plantation elites had not over-extended like Northerners (especially in the Midwest), southerners began to believe that the North would recognize the necessity of slavery and the inextricable unity of the two sections of the nation–for profits.

Image result for president buchanan

President James Buchanan (1857-1861), the President immediately before the Civil War, believed his efforts to manipulate paper currency were important to ending the panic, which really only ended with the war.

Buchanan makes the not-terribly-scholarly list of “Most Racist Presidents” because of his support for the Dred Scott Decision and his refusal to halt the spread of slavery to the western territories, one prime cause of the Civil War.   https://www.cheatsheet.com/culture/most-racist-presidents-including-donald-trump.html/

Abolitionists and Radical Republicans

Thadeus Stevens

Stevens was an ardent abolitionist who championed the rights of blacks for decades—up to, during, and after the Civil War.

With other Radical Republicans, he agitated for emancipation, black fighting units, and black suffrage. After the war, he favored dividing up Southern plantations among the freed slaves, embracing William Tecumseh Sherman’s “forty acres and a mule.”

Pro-slavery forces (“bushwackers” who demean the term “guerrilla”) led by William Quantrill raided from Missouri into Kansas, burning Lawrence. Among Quantrill’s band were Jesse and Frank James, later famous criminals.

 

The Pottawatomie Creek Massacre (May 24th, 1856)

Well portrayed, IMHO, in the PBS Video below but PBS has the entire series “down.”

https://www.pbs.org/video/american-experience-pottawatomie-massacre/

Osawatomie John Brown

 

John Brown was hanged (captured by slaver Robert E. Lee)  on Dec 2 1859 

The video below, by the Virginia Historical Society, is a good example of a biased history that seeks to offer, “on the one hand this, and on the other hand that,” when it disguises support for slavery.

The video below, by the Voice of America (read CIA) follows the same indecisive path as the film above.

Lincoln was elected in November, 1860

Confederate States of America – Mississippi Secession

A Declaration of the Immediate Causes which Induce and Justify the Secession of the State of Mississippi from the Federal Union.

In the momentous step which our State has taken of dissolving its connection with the government of which we so long formed a part, it is but just that we should declare the prominent reasons which have induced our course.

Our position is thoroughly identified with the institution of slavery— the greatest material interest of the world. Its labor supplies the product which constitutes by far the largest and most important portions of commerce of the earth. These products are peculiar to the climate verging on the tropical regions, and by an imperious law of nature, none but the black race can bear exposure to the tropical sun. These products have become necessities of the world, and a blow at slavery is a blow at commerce and civilization. That blow has been long aimed at the institution, and was at the point of reaching its consummation. There was no choice left us but submission to the mandates of abolition, or a dissolution of the Union, whose principles had been subverted to work out our ruin.

That we do not overstate the dangers to our institution, a reference to a few facts will sufficiently prove.

The hostility to this institution commenced before the adoption of the Constitution, and was manifested in the well-known Ordinance of 1787, in regard to the Northwestern Territory.

The feeling increased, until, in 1819-20, it deprived the South of more than half the vast territory acquired from France.

The same hostility dismembered Texas and seized upon all the territory acquired from Mexico.

It has grown until it denies the right of property in slaves, and refuses protection to that right on the high seas, in the Territories, and wherever the government of the United States had jurisdiction.  http://avalon.law.yale.edu/19th_century/csa_missec.asp

What were Southern (Confederates) advantages? Disadvantages?

What were Northern (Unionists) advantages and disadvantages?

Who would be positioned to tip the balance of forces?

 

     What is Socialism? Communism?

Image result for marx engels

Much of this is drawn from Engles’ “Socialism, Utopian and Scientific.” And the “Communist Manifesto” by Marx and Engles.

Socialism is the result of a revolution. There is no such thing as a non-violent revolution (Chalmers Johnson).

Socialism in the absence of a revolution is not socialism.

It may be social/bourgeoisie democracy (meaning elites still control the means of production–but more gently), as in Sweden or Venezuela, but socialism means the working class is in power. That is  not possible without a revolution.

Absent a revolution that puts the majority, poor and working people, in control of every aspect of government, the appearances of socialism can be easily reversed. For example, the forty hour week, won by mass worker uprisings in the US in the thirties, has been washed away.

Socialism presumes government, the state, continues to exist, a dictatorship, not of the rich, but of the workers and other formerly oppressed people.

This is called the “dictatorship of the proletariat” (extended, this means the workers, peasants, soldiers, etc.),” as distinct from the dictatorship of the capitalists.

Socialism uses its government to apply varying methods to socialize, commune-alize, equalize, production and social life.

Socialism is a stage that Marx and Engles believed could lay the basis for greater and greater equality and democracy (democracy in the absence of generalized equality is always counterfeit).

Once general equality is reached, there is theoretically no need for a state, a government, and when the state “withers away,” communism is won. Communism means there is no longer a need for a government, a state.

The dictatorship of the proletariat presumes leadership of a party which typically led the revolution.

Socialism has used the Paris Commune of 1871 as an example.

( https://www.marxists.org/history/erol/ncm‑5/rcp‑paris‑commune.htm)

Key lessons of the Commune: Immediate recall of elected leaders, direct elections, no elected leader paid more than average worker, workers paid approximately the same, an armed populace.

What countries are or have been socialist? USSR (briefly, quickly destroyed by the “New Economic Policy” –see below), and China, briefly, “New Democracy.” Maybe Cuba, Albania, Soviet satellite states in Eastern. Europe.

Socialism’s slogan: from each according to their work to each according to their need.

Problems that led to the failure of socialism so far:

***Theory of Productive Forces.

In brief, beginning with the Russian (Bolshevik Party) revolution, the first of its kind, the backwardness of mostly peasant Russian (which became the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics) coupled with the destructiveness of the revolution and subsequent Civil War (the USSR was invaded by every empire, including the USA) meant the productive forces (factories, science labs, water supply–everything) were in terrible shape.

The Bolsheviks had also believed that their Russian Revolution would lead to revolutions in Europe, expanding their base of support. Those revolutions never happened. In wealthy Germany, an attempted revolution was crushed.

Image result for Lenin

Lenin, who forced through the Russian Revolution, theorized that it was necessary to recruit scientists, technicians, bureaucrats, and other specialists in order to build up a base  of abundance which could be shared out for more equality in the distant future.

He wrote the “New Economic Policy,” (NEP) which openly restored capitalism to the USSR in the early 1920s.

The NEP offered those specialists higher pay, more privileges, etc.

In order to keep this new class of people in check, the Bolsheviks determined that the party leadership needed to be paid more, offered more privileges, than the specialists–hence another new ruling class–sitting on top of an openly declared capitalist government.

The party became a dictatorship with one man, Joe Stalin, sitting on top.

Image result for napoleon

This followed a pattern, set by Napoleon following the French Revolution. It’s called “Thermidor,” (from the French Revolution, meaning counter-revolution) a failed revolution leading to a one-man dictatorship.

I call that social-fascism, somewhat distinct from German or Japanese fascism.

After the much longer revolution in China was victorious in 1949, Mao led the Chinese to “New Democracy,” modeled directly after the NEP. Mao became dictator and lived like god.

Image result for mao gold

In the mid-sixties, the “Cultural Revolution” in China sought to overturn the “Capitalist Roaders” in the Chinese Communist Party. It is unclear if the “CCR” was started by Mao himself, or if a leftist movement in China initiated it.

Image result for mao long march

In either case, after years of upheaval (which improved the lives of millions of peasants and also killed many innocents) the Cultural Revolution was crushed by the not-so-red Army.

Since then, China, clearly a capitalist dictatorship run by a bogus “Communist” Party has advanced rapidly and is developing into a world capitalist empire challenging the US and the world.

In both cases, of Russian and China, inequality was deliberately, openly, re-established with the party at top.

***Using the NEP as a starting point, Lenin late in life said socialism is: “Taylorism with the  party– plus electricity. In other words, socialism is efficient workers coupled with modern forms of power, owned by the party dictatorship–serving only the party.

***No fake “socialist” country sought to overturn Nationalism, while Marx said, “workers of all countries unite, you have nothing to lose but your chains.

This anti-Marxist move was achieved in part by claiming “rights of national self-determination.” If that is to always be honored, the US south would be another country today.

Image result for stalin

Stalin soon declared he was building, “Socialism in One Country,” upending any pretense of Marxist internationalism.

***Cults of personality. Stalinism (quickly above criticism–with death and gulags as penalties) became fascism. Maoism became fascism. Castro was a dictator. Now his brother is a dictator.

***Stalin in the mid 1930’s claimed class struggle ended in the USSR (but socialism presumes the state still exists because classes still exist). So, Stalin abolished class struggle in practice.

At the same time, he wiped out the “negation of negation” (meaning endless change) in Soviet philosophy. Stalin, thus, abolished class struggle in Soviet theory.

By 1935, Stalin had killed all the old Bolsheviks who led the Russian Revolution.

***Education (start with checking for segregation) is always a bellwether. If no criticism of the party is allowed, if exploited labor and battles for empire are seen as so normal, they are invisible, that’s probably not what Marx and Engles meant by socialism.

Communism has never existed inside any given state. Communism presumes the state has withered away because general equality exists.

Communist slogan: From each according to ability to each according to need.

Communism has existed, however, within revolutionary movements and to one degree or another within utopian communes. Utopian communes never survive long within capitalism. 

For example, the Chinese red army was a more or less communist force. It operated on principals outlined by the Paris Commune (above) and involved millions of people.

Class war, within nations, and empire’s wars between nations, persists.

People will fight back. At issue: will they grasp why they fight back and, maybe, win, or will they fight ghosts and phantoms and petty reforms alone–and lose—again?

The “Communist Manifesto” is online here:  https://www.marxists.org/archive/marx/works/1848/communist‑manifesto/

“Socialism, Utopian and Scientific” is online here: https://www.marxists.org/archive/marx/works/1880/soc‑utop/index.htm

@Rich Gibson 2018

 

 

 

 

======================================================================================================

Class 15, History 100

Sign in! Sign In! Sign IN!!!

Rich Gibson, PhD. Pennsylvania State University

Emeritus Professor, SDSU

Professor, SWC

Please display name cards in each class.

Our Phantasmagoric Agenda#15

Why are things as they are? We make our own history, but not in circumstances we chose.

History has demonstrated that the most notable winners usually encountered heartbreaking obstacles before they triumphed. They won because they refused to become discouraged by their defeats. B. C. Forbes

April 23 and 24

1945 – World War II: Adolf Hitler‘s designated successor, Hermann Göring, sends him a telegram asking permission to take leadership of the Third Reich. Martin Bormann and Joseph Goebbels advise Hitler that the telegram is treasonous.

1968Vietnam War: Student protesters at Columbia University in New York City take over administration buildings and shut down the university.

1967 – Vietnam War: American General William Westmoreland says in a news conference that the enemy had “gained support in the United States that gives him hope that he can win politically that which he cannot win militarily”

1980 – Eight U.S. servicemen die in Operation Eagle Claw as they attempt to end the Iran hostage crisis.

2004 – The United States lifts economic sanctions imposed on Libya 18 years previously, as a reward for its cooperation in eliminating weapons of mass destruction.

2005Cardinal Joseph Ratzinger is inaugurated as the 265th Pope of the Catholic Church taking the name Pope Benedict XVI.

Our Agenda

1. What IS up?

***Gitmo again

***Cool Obits!

2. Repetition is good!

Top 6 Foreign Policy Doctrines

https://www.thoughtco.com/top-six-foreign-policy-doctrines-105473

3. One more element of Imperialism: The Bribe.

Image result for imperialist bribe

4. Professor Devine, Chapters 10 and 11 in American Story: The Masters and the Slaves (remember?)

The role of slavery in the development of capitalism and empire.

Grievances pile up and up! What’s next?

How slavery has been taught is a good example of history as a problem and battleground.

The South wrote the history until well into and after the Civil Rights movement in the 1960’s and in some cases still is.

Even Ken Burns’ PBS series “The Civil War,” offers excuse on excuse for the slavers’ South and repeats myths about “courageous Generals” like slaver Lee.

Note the cultural effect of Gone with the Wind, Showboat, the many cowboy movies glorifying Jesse James etc.

The documentary above demonstrates what I see as a southern view of terrorists who supported slavery, offering excuse on excuse about why it was “necessary” to, for example, burn Lawrence, Kansas to the ground, killing perhaps more than 100 unarmed people.

Slave rebellions did happen, but they were fairly rare and put down ruthlessly.

Denmark Vesey, planned a rebellion in 1820s but was caught and executed.

1831 Nat Turner….Virginia, killed 60 slavers, “whites” to Devine. After Turner was killed, there were no major uprisings for a long time.

ConfessionsOfNatTurner.jpg

New Laws…Rise of Southern Nationalism….”Important role slavery played in south….” nearly the entire economy.

Southern Inequality—class and caste…Nate Knight in Mississippi..
http://www.natchezbelle.org/ahgp-ms/jones/secession2.htm

White Inequality…½ Owned slaves but only about 4% truly rich.

Divisions among black people…house and field slaves and freed people too. Skin tone was important, even then.

5% of southern slaves in industry.

Work varied by geography, wealth of owner…don’t “get sold down the river” to Florida turpentine plantations.

These Maps Reveal How Slavery Expanded Across the United States

As the hunger for more farmland stretched west, so too did the demand for enslaved labor

Slavery Map

The U.S. Coast Survey map calculated the number of slaves in each county in the United States in 1860. (Library of Congress)  https://www.smithsonianmag.com/history/maps-reveal-slavery-expanded-across-united-states-180951452/

Interactive map on the spread of slavery https://lincolnmullen.com/projects/slavery/

Black Family: extended, formed communities, black churches–mass of people had no access to church…retained some African and some American evangelical aspects….Exodus is key…Religion helps “endure bondage”

Slave Rebellions-Nat Turner (above), Seminoles two wars, but 1835-42 key.

Thousands ran off.

“Passing.”

How can slaves resist (remember our Master/Slave exercise?)
Slowdowns, stealing, poison.

How can Masters retain their rule besides the obvious, violence? (one more method: choose the slaves’ leaders).

South promotes slavery as a positive good. Black people need white people. Beasts. Happy children.

Racism sharpens.

How to Make a Slave a Christian:

Image result for how to make a slave a christian

1830’s in South–Slave laws, passes, no meetings, constant surveillance.

White Southern Society…Relatively tiny elite, self made, not mostly a leisure class but rapidly becoming so, aristocratic style develops contradicting the absence of deference so much part of the American Revolution.

Planters Racism is portrayed as Paternalism (“father takes care of the family”) …moral and mental inferiority of Africans…

In 1830’s 1840’s full blown racism appears….real hatred, different species, thus it is ok to enslave them…

Paternalism and capitalism….slaves =capital….actually slaves = commodity. Had a contradictory interest in slave well being….more kids the better.

Rule by violence still key. Whippings. Slave markets. Simon Legree.

Image result for whipped slave

Image result for simon legree

Most masters did not know most slaves. Overseers. Hierarchy.

Most men in south were Yeoman Farmers. Hard work. No slaves but racists opposed to abolitionism.

You can own a slave and move up. Pride and status in white skin.

Pride in “honor” led to many, many duels–‘masculinity’ key–that is, sexism.

Pro Slavery argument. (1) blacks inferior, another species, born to be slaves, (2) approved by bible, St Paul, servants are to obey…(3) slaves need masters…..free workers starve in north

St. Paul recommends slaves to seek in all things to please their masters, not to contradict them, to do them no wrong, to honour them, to be loyal to them, so as to make the teaching of God Our Saviour shine forth before the eyes of all, and to prevent that name and teaching from being blasphemed (cf. 1 Timothy 6:1; Titus 2:9, 10). The apostolic writings show how large a place slaves occupied in the Church. ”   http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/14036a.htm

South moves to seal off region from abolitionists.

Shut up the pulpit. Cut off post office. Tar and feather northerners.

1857–More new laws, crime to teach slaves…literacy banned (but slavers like Jefferson needed literate slaves), banned ANY meetings.

Clamped down on free blacks.

Atmosphere of fear and despair among southern whites.

Slavery and the Southern Economy….
1860–4 million slaves….–tripled since 1810.

Enslaved people were the most valuable commodity in the South.

Note maps of slave concentrations. P299 of Professor Devine

Upper south–tobacco, but key – breeding slaves….Devine: ”slavery had a weaker hold in Virginia, KY, Maryland “ (not true in VA)

Deep South…cotton..gin…export to Great Britain textiles, competes with New England, free traders,

Depressions followed booms in 1815-19, 32-37, 49-60

Elite slavers doing well. Every economic reason to keep slavery.

Slavery and Industrialization—feudalist slavers had no reason to invest in industry.

South dependent on north for industry and capital./markets

Slavery WAS very, very, profitable.

Texas opened to slavery, and of course Texican slaves suffered.

South was underdeveloped, no incentive for slaves or big owners to work hard.

Lack of education for poor whites and black people.

The South; a society divided by race and class.
The North is also divided by race and class.
Women are third class citizens.

The North exists in a contradictory relationship with the south.

Unity in the sense that many, many northerners were involved in the slave trade (shippers, boat builders, bankers, etc.) and while many northern workers were racists, it was clear that a move west for slavery would mean lower wages everywhere.

Moreover, abolitionists of all kinds, evangelicals to atheists, had a dramatic impact over time, even if racism remained popular.

What defeats men with guns?

Nate Knight http://www.natchezbelle.org/ahgp-ms/jones/secession2.htm

Doubling the size of the USA: Mexico and Manifest Destiny

above, “His Most Serene Highness” Santa Anna the disastrous president or military dictator of Mexico 11 times. He’s credited with losing Texas and nearly 1/2 of Mexico’s territory.

Crockett:

“Be sure you are right; then go ahead.”

“You may go to hell, and I will go to Texas.”

In Section 9 of the General Provisions of the Constitution of the Republic of Texas, it is stated how the new republic would resolve their greatest problem under Mexican rule: “All persons of color who were slaves for life previous to their emigration to Texas, and who are now held in bondage, shall remain in the like state of servitude … Congress shall pass no laws to prohibit emigrants from bringing their slaves into the republic with them, and holding them by the same tenure by which such slaves were held in the United States; nor shall congress have power to emancipate slaves.”

Mexico had in fact abolished slavery in 1829  (HNN)

 

3. Sectional Crises in the US and the run up top to the Civil War

a.  Ideological and Material differences (abolition and land)

b. The Missouri Compromise of 1820 (Maine/Missouri–free/slave) set aside by–

d. The Kansas Nebraska Act 1854

  Fugitive Slave Act of 1850

For decades before 1850, many men and women who escaped from slavery were able to avoid being captured and returned to their owners, but the Fugitive Slave Act, part of the Compromise of 1850, empowered federal officials to assist owners seeking to reclaim runaway slaves.

1856: Senator Charles Sumner (Republican) attacked in Senate  by Representative Preston Brooks (D-SC): Southern code of honor applied for speech Sumner gave in favor of a free Kansas

The PANIC of 1857

Abolitionists and Radical Republicans

Thadeus Stevens

Stevens was an ardent abolitionist who championed the rights of blacks for decades—up to, during, and after the Civil War. With other Radical Republicans, he agitated for emancipation, black fighting units, and black suffrage. After the war, he favored dividing up Southern plantations among the freed slaves, embracing William Tecumseh Sherman’s “forty acres and a mule.”

Pro-slavery forces (“bushwackers” who demean the term “guerrilla”) led by William Quantrill raided from Missouri into Kansas, burning Lawrence. Among Quantrill’s band were Jesse and Frank James, later famous criminals.

 

The Pottawatomie Creek Massacre (May 24th, 1856)

Well portrayed, IMHO, in the PBS Video below but PBS has the entire series “down.”

https://www.pbs.org/video/american-experience-pottawatomie-massacre/

Osawatomie John Brown

 

John Brown was hanged (captured by slaver Robert E. Lee)  on Dec 2 1859 

The video below, by the Virginia Historical Society, is a good example of a biased history that seeks to offer, “on the one hand this, and on the other hand that,” when it disguises support for slavery.

The video below, by the Voice of America (read CIA) follows the same indecisive path as the film above.

Lincoln was elected in November, 1860

Confederate States of America – Mississippi Secession

A Declaration of the Immediate Causes which Induce and Justify the Secession of the State of Mississippi from the Federal Union.

In the momentous step which our State has taken of dissolving its connection with the government of which we so long formed a part, it is but just that we should declare the prominent reasons which have induced our course.

Our position is thoroughly identified with the institution of slavery— the greatest material interest of the world. Its labor supplies the product which constitutes by far the largest and most important portions of commerce of the earth. These products are peculiar to the climate verging on the tropical regions, and by an imperious law of nature, none but the black race can bear exposure to the tropical sun. These products have become necessities of the world, and a blow at slavery is a blow at commerce and civilization. That blow has been long aimed at the institution, and was at the point of reaching its consummation. There was no choice left us but submission to the mandates of abolition, or a dissolution of the Union, whose principles had been subverted to work out our ruin.

That we do not overstate the dangers to our institution, a reference to a few facts will sufficiently prove.

The hostility to this institution commenced before the adoption of the Constitution, and was manifested in the well-known Ordinance of 1787, in regard to the Northwestern Territory.

The feeling increased, until, in 1819-20, it deprived the South of more than half the vast territory acquired from France.

The same hostility dismembered Texas and seized upon all the territory acquired from Mexico.

It has grown until it denies the right of property in slaves, and refuses protection to that right on the high seas, in the Territories, and wherever the government of the United States had jurisdiction.  http://avalon.law.yale.edu/19th_century/csa_missec.asp

What were Southern (Confederates) advantages? Disadvantages?

What were Northern (Unionists) advantages and disadvantages?

Who would be positioned to tip the balance of forces?

 

 

 

 

=====================================================================================================

Class 14, History 100

Sign in! Sign In! Sign IN!!!

Rich Gibson, PhD. Pennsylvania State University

Emeritus Professor, SDSU

Professor, SWC

Please display name cards in each class.

Our Phantasmagoric Agenda#13

Why are things as they are? We make our own history, but not in circumstances we chose.

“The most effective way to destroy people is to deny and obliterate their own understanding of their history.”
George Orwell

April 18

1521 – Trial of Martin Luther begins its second day during the assembly of the Diet of Worms. He refuses to recant his teachings despite the risk of excommunication. (Indulgences and 94 other complaints–  https://www.history.com/topics/reformation/martin-luther-and-the-95-theses)

1775American Revolution: The British advancement by sea begins; Paul Revere and other riders warn the countryside of the troop movements.

Henry Wadsworth Longfellos:

“Listen, my children, and you shall hear Of the midnight ride of Paul Revere, On the eighteenth of April, in Seventy-Five: Hardly a man is now alive Who remembers that famous day and year.  https://www.poets.org/poetsorg/poem/paul-reveres-ride

1942World War II: The Doolittle Raid on Japan: Tokyo, Yokohama, Kobe and Nagoya are bombed.

2007 – A series of bombings, two of them being suicides, occur in Baghdad, killing 198 and injuring 251.

Catholic Priests Abused 1,000 Children in Pennsylvania, Report Says

The Clergy Abuse Crisis Has Cost The Catholic Church $3 Billion

https://www.npr.org/2018/08/18/639698062/the-clergy-abuse-crisis-has-cost-the-catholic-church-3-billion

Our Agenda 14 (Don’t be doomed!!!!)

1. What IS UP???

***Mueller Report–ni collusion, no obstruction???

***John Bolton, Trump’s National Security Advisor, says, “The Monroe Doctrine is alive and well,” aiming his remarks at Cuba but Venezuela is in the background.   https://theweek.com/speedreads/835854/john-bolton-says-monroe-doctrine-alive-well-history-shows-why-thats-controversial-statement

 

Back to the Interlude as Capital and Empire Grow

Top 6 Foreign Policy Doctrines

https://www.thoughtco.com/top-six-foreign-policy-doctrines-105473

Empire!

The necessary relentless search for raw materials, markets, cheap labor, and regional control.

Joseph Ellis CSPAN examined the political thinking of four Founding Fathers, Thomas Jefferson, John Adams, James Madison, and George Washington, in order to address the country’s current social and political issues.
https://www.c-span.org/video/?451987-1/american-dialogue

David Blight, Yale Prof and expert on the Civil War whose lectures are online, discusses his recent book on Frederick Douglass here: https://www.c-span.org/video/?451151-1/frederick-douglass

Review

 Racism is a system of ideas constructed and buttressed by economic and political requirements for inequality.

Racism has a history, coming into being with the rise of capitalist nations, particularly the US–slavery.

Racism hurts most people but some profit from racism (lower wages, dividing work forces, building ideology for armed violence against other nations, etc.)

Opposition to racism is a matter of material interest, not missionaryism (“do-gooding”).. An injury to one precedes an injury to all, that is, class solidarity.

From “Racism, a Short History”:

Racial Darwinism rises—races compete against each other to survive–19th and 20th Century—Overt Racism Written into public policy

In 1860, Harvard declared black people a separate species.

In the 1990’s, the book, “The Bell Curve,” argued that black and brown people have, inherently, lower IQ’s.

Over time:

1.  Racism becomes official, state, ideology and it is dangerous to oppose it. “Defacto” (distinct from “dejure”)racism parallels state denials of racism.
2. Laws forbid intermarriage in Virginia until 1967. (Loving vs Virginia).
3. Segregation mandated by law (red-lining, or economic “defacto” housing segregation.
4. Out group cannot hold public posts (3 US Senators have been black).
5. Segregation so powerful that Out group lives in poverty
6. “One Drop of ‘Blood,” that is, race is indelible, cannot change.
6. Racism means death. (Life expectancy for black people is about 5 years less than white people. The gap has been narrowing for years).

The American Eugenics Society promoted the theory of “separate species” and preceded to sterilize people, unwillingly, across the US. Their ‘genetic’ inferiority ideas inspired the German fascists.

This was all true in the US South and much of the North, in South Africa, and Nazi Germany

Racism can be intellectually defeated by science but religious fanaticism cannot.

Gibson: Racism is a very profitable divide and rule trick.

A New Nation, a new, advancing, form of industrial, agricultural and finance capital, and a very lucky empire…(why “lucky”?)

1810  John Jacob Astor forms fur trading Company.

Image result for waldorf astoria

Waldorf Astoria Hotel Chicago

One implication of today’s overwhelming rule of finance capital was witnessed by the billionairess Lady Astor who said (paraphrasing) “We the wealthy once looked ahead 50, even 100 years. We built industry, commerce, productive fields. We worried about the poor. Today, the newly rich just run higgidly piggidly after the nearest dollar.” Or, “after me, the deluge.” (RG)

Image result for lady astor rich gibson

1817 Andy Jackson invades Florida, Chasing Seminoles, Spain Gives up Florida.

1824 Jefferson and Adams die on July 4th, same day.

Mountain Men: Jim Bridger, Kit Carson, “Jeremiah Johnson.”

Image result for kit carson landmark book

Image result for jim bridger landmark book

Land Between Mississippi River and Appalachians is occupied by Indians:
Cherokees, Choctaw, Creek, Seminoles. Chickasaw know as the “5 Civilized Tribes.” They owned some slaves who were treated differently, like serfs, agriculturalists. They were akin to sharecroppers, as we shall see.

Cherokees: Sequoyah, had a written language. Had a written Constitution. Owned slaves. Accommodationists.

Image result for sequoyah landmark book

 Seminoles and Creeks were often at war.

Seminoles,who mostly moved to the Florida swamps, mixed with escaped slaves. They were a relatively new tribe Their war chief Osceola (not mentioned in Devine) is below.

Rising inequality, but then based on accumulated wealth, not inheritance.Myth of “democracy” (republic) persists.

But it remains there never were any monarchs in the United States, making it unique.

Founders believed in natural aristocracy, meritocracy, disappearance of inherited social rank, “decline of deference,” self made men, no one but a slave is a servant, booming inequality based on ownership of means of production (often land).

“The rise of industrialism was creating a class of landless (people)…..” (NO, driving people off land was, and people forced to move from Europe…) p. 258

White men equal before the law, not like Europe. Attacks on all forms of elitism.

Popular presses boomed.

Mass literacy. Moby Dick (1851)

Walt Whitman, Leaves of Grass (1855)

Nathaniel Hawthorne, Scarlet Letter (1850)

Growth of (mostly craft) unions. Opposed to “non-producing parasites.”

“Radicals want to abolish inheritance, redistribute property, extend public schooling, 10 hour day, currency based on hard money..”

Abolitionists rising….sometimes connected to the women’s movement and often not. The Liberator was edited by William Lloyd Garrison, an anti-slavery pacifist.

 

Image result for william lloyd garrisonhttps://www.pbs.org/video/american-experience-garrison-publishes-liberator/

In the very first issue of his anti-slavery newspaper, the Liberator, William Lloyd Garrison stated, “I do not wish to think, or speak, or write, with moderation. . . . I am in earnest — I will not equivocate — I will not excuse — I will not retreat a single inch — AND I WILL BE HEARD.”

And Garrison was heard. For more than three decades, from the first issue of his weekly paper in 1831, until after the end of the Civil War in 1865 when the last issue was published, Garrison spoke out eloquently and passionately against slavery and for the rights of America’s black inhabitants. (PBS)

Garrison denounced the US Constitution:

“The Covenant with Death and How It Was Made”

https://www.archives.gov/publications/prologue/2000/winter/garrisons-constitution-1.html

Image result for frederick douglass

Frederick Douglass was enslaved for 20 years. He escaped and became a world famous author, speaker, for abolition. Over time, he advocated violence against the slave system.

Image result for autobiography frederick douglass

With his popular speeches and books, Douglass became world famous.

The “political status of blacks and women declined in era of ‘common man.”

1824–John Quincy Adams elected….won via electoral college..as above–negotiated Florida from Spain (empire grows)

1828–Andrew Jackson wins. 1st ‘modern political party formed–Democrats. Mass campaigning. Rachel Jackson accused as an adulteress. Posed as a “Man of people.” Fought many duels. Jackson was an avowed racist.

Spoils system rises (parties give jobs to their supporters)

And backscratching (You support my bill, I support yours) and

Outright Corruption.

Indian Removal is main thing about Jackson. Zinn calls him land speculator. Devine misses that.

The Cherokees “were in his way.” The Trail of Tears. 

Indians had been promised, by treaty, tens of thousands of acres of land in the southern Appalachian mountains. The US guaranteed that Americans who moved there would be removed.

Instead, Jackson’s administration rounded up about 15,000 Cherokees and forced them to march, many in chains, about 1,000 miles, to Oklahoma. Women, children, old men, all were forced to cross the Mississippi River.

About one-third of the people on the forced march died.

https://www.ducksters.com/history/native_americans/trail_of_tears_map_2.jpg

Short Smithsonian video on the Trail of Tears will be shown on April 20.

https://www.smithsonianchannel.com/videos/how-the-brutal-trail-of-tears-got-its-name/51553

Nullification as key issue. Can states nullify fed law?

Tariff another key issue. South and cotton states oppose Tariff, north wants it.

JC Calhoun of S. Carolina fights feud with Jackson over nullification. Jackson threatened to invade south but made deal on tariff.

Calhoun

Image result for john c calhoun

Jackson was a southerner and slaveholder. A pro slavery president but also a nationalist.

Bank Wars….Finance Capital…. Bank of US, Jeffersonian Dems opposed, no popular control.

1832 Jackson wins re-election—bank key issue. Jackson vetoed a national bank. Removed fed deposits. Gave $ to some state banks. Congress refused to regulate them. Biddle did credit contraction. A Recession/depression followed.

Congress attempts to censure Jackson, but fails.

The Whig Party is born–against “King Andrew the usurper.”

They absorbed anti-masons, evangelicals, prudes.

1836 election–Urban working class radicalizing…vs banks….formed Equal Rights Party.

Jackson issues “species circular” only hard money….brought on recession, but curbed inflation.

1836- Martin Van Buren wins…..Chosen by Jackson….

1837–Catastrophic depression says Devine, treated as a natural occurrence, why? Banks collapse, international in scope.

1840 Election— William Henry Harrison wins.  Harrison was know as “Tippecanoe” (for the 1811 Indian massacre in Indiana that we addressed before) and Tyler too. Died in office after one month…

Whigs…for gov intervention….Whig positive liberal state….Whigs richer industrialists…Whigs for tariffs to protect elites. …

Dems—poorer, Catholics, Lutherans, Episcopalian, states righters, white men majority…

White mens democracy….not for women, black people, Indians, on the job, or really for poor.

As above, De Tocqueville—predicted slavery would lead to civil war….described white racism is…growing….

Just what happened in a broad sense, and what is next?

Settlement is complete to the Mississippi—People went to land they understood. Isolated single family units were mostly self sufficient.  Mutual aid societies form. Barn raisings etc.

Revolution in Transportation:
Rivers key: Ohio, Mississippi,
Steamship Paddle wheelers, gamblers, Erie Canal, 364 miles long, still there.
Railroads begin to compete.

Market Economy: Rapid development of capitalism.
Technology: capital revolutionary, steel plows, Cotton gin
Good land transportation.

Regional concentration of staple crops
tobacco, cotton, rice

SLAVERY IS KEY. Cotton to the north, then exported., etc
Rivers in south.

Finance Capital rising (Devine calls it commerce and banking)
Credit is key
private banks issue money as US govt is not issuing much currency.
1816 First bank of US, public private

1819 to 1823, Depression, complete financial collapse. Another collapse in 1837.

Hostility to banks built into culture.


Industrial Capitalists: first in textiles, weapons industries, interchangeable parts–literacy.

Pending Questions

What is history?

What are the competing standpoints on historiography?

How to spot lies?

How do things change, if they do?

Why Have Government? What is the History of governments?

What is tyranny? How do masters rule? How do people resist?

What is a revolution? Why and how do they happen?

What is capitalism?

Imperialism?

Socialism?

Communism?

Racism? History?

How do ideas become material forces, if they do at all?

Ponzi scheme?

How shall we treat religion?

Why do people move?

How to do college and where to go

 

____________________________________________________________________________________________________

 

 

1816 Monroe elected. Republican. Era of good feeling.

Image result for james monroe

Nation Building after war of 1812: “Myth of National Harmony”

Missouri Compromise of 1819 set a precedent: Missouri applied for admission as slave state. Northerner abolitionists were  mad about the Constitutional 3/5 compromise. Another deal was made–Missouri entered as a slave state, Maine a free state.

John Marshall, Supreme Court, 1801 to 35, Supreme court is there to promote commerce, limit public responsibilities of corporations, “Implied powers” loose construction, supremacy of national government.

Reminder of the Monroe Doctrine, 1823

Image result for monroe doctrine

Most of “The Americas” now belong to the US…..Should the US support revolutions in S. America and Mexico??

 

 

=================================================

=Class 13 (skipped 12), History 100

Sign in! Sign In! Sign IN!!!

Rich Gibson, PhD. Pennsylvania State University

Emeritus Professor, SDSU

Professor, SWC

Please display name cards in each class.

Our Phantasmagoric Agenda#13

Why are things as they are? We make our own history, but not in circumstances we chose.

If you did not get an email from me (and three people didn’t, I am sure), your correct email address is not linked to SWC. So, please email me with your correct email address and change it at SWC as you need to be able to get emergency news.

Anyone who knows anything of history knows that great social changes are impossible without feminine upheaval. Social progress can be measured exactly by the social position of the fair sex.   Karl Marx

April 16

1917Vladimir Lenin returns to Petrograd, Russia, from exile in Switzerland.

1945 – World War II: The Red Army begins the final assault on German forces around Berlin, with nearly one million troops fighting in the Battle of the Seelow Heights.

1945 – The United States Army liberates Nazi Sonderlager (high security) prisoner-of-war camp Oflag IV-C (better known as Colditz).

1963 – Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. pens his Letter from Birmingham Jail while incarcerated in Birmingham, Alabama for protesting against segregation.

Our agenda

If you are behind in your longer essays or reading responses, catch up. There is still time. Don’t be DOOMED!

1. What’s up?

***Julian Assange of Wikileaks arrested.

***Tax Day–“Only Little People pay taxes.” Leona Helmsley

***History (social studies) as a battleground…

***More?

2. Back to where we left off with the Constitution and Bill of Rights

The Constitution and the Bill of Rights (federalists like Madison vs Republicans like Jefferson).

The Constitution was written by 55 wealthy white men, 25 of them slave owners, in secret.

There was serious, bitter, debate about, among other things, the role of a strong central government.

Supporters of a strong central government were called Federalists, led by Madison and Hamilton–both basically monarchists.

Republicans–not today’s Republicans–were personified by Jefferson, who rejected the possibility of a new monarchy.

The Federalists had more access to popular forms of communications. They mis-characterized the real nature of the document they had created.

Jefferson’s objections led, in part, to the Bill of Rights, attached later.

This was a conservative revolution in substance, yet radical in form. It was conservative in the fact that there was no change in class domination, just location of domination–and slavery remained.

It was very radical in form in its roots in EQUALITY, LIBERTY, HAPPINESS.

Image result for beard economic interpretation of the Constitution

***SLAVERY and the Constitution (key role of property rights):

a.  3/5s clause. 

b. slave trade extended to 1806.

c. Fugitive slave clause.

In 12 of the first 16 presidential elections, a Southern slave owner won. Extending the slave trade to 1806 brought many slaves to America. 

Let us discuss the “Checks and Balances” myth and the branches of the US government. What are they? And one more?

Zinn: “In Federalist Paper #10, James Madison argued that representative government was needed to maintain peace in a society ridden by factional disputes. These disputes came from “the various and unequal distribution of property. Those who hold and those who are without property have ever formed distinct interests in society.” The problem, he said, was how to control the factional struggles that came from inequalities in wealth. Minority factions could be controlled, he said, by the principle that decisions would be by vote of the majority.

So the real problem, according to Madison, was a majority faction, and here the solution was offered by the Constitution, to have “an extensive republic,” that is, a large nation ranging over thirteen states, for then “it will be more difficult for all who feel it to discover their own strength, and to act in unison with each other…. The influence of factious leaders may kindle a flame within their particular States, but will be unable to spread a general conflagration through the other States.”

Madison’s argument can be seen as a sensible argument for having a government which can maintain peace and avoid continuous disorder. But is it the aim of government simply to maintain order, as a referee, between two equally matched fighters?

Or is it that government has some special interest in maintaining a certain kind of order, a certain distribution of power and wealth, a distribution in which government officials are not neutral referees but participants? In that case, the disorder they might worry about is the disorder of popular rebellion against those monopolizing the society’s wealth. This interpretation makes sense when one looks at the economic interests, the social backgrounds, of the makers of the Constitution.

As part of his argument for a large republic to keep the peace, James Madison tells quite clearly, in Federalist #10, whose peace he wants to keep: “A rage for paper money, for an abolition of debts, for an equal division of property, or for any other improper or wicked project, will be less apt to pervade the whole body of the Union than a particular member of it.”

When economic interest is seen behind the political clauses of the Constitution, then the document becomes not simply the work of wise men trying to establish a decent and orderly society, but the work of certain groups trying to maintain their privileges, while giving just enough rights and liberties to enough of the people to ensure popular support.

In the new government, Madison would belong to one party (the Democrat-Republicans) along with Jefferson and Monroe. Hamilton would belong to the rival party (the Federalists) along with Washington and Adams.

But both agreed-one a slaveholder from Virginia, the other a merchant from New York-on the aims of this new government they were establishing.

They were anticipating the long-fundamental agreement of the two political parties in the American system. Hamilton wrote elsewhere in the Federalist Papers that the new Union would be able “to repress domestic faction and insurrection.” He referred directly to Shays’ Rebellion: “The tempestuous situation from which Massachusetts has scarcely emerged evinces that dangers of this kind are not merely speculative.”

It was either Madison or Hamilton (the authorship of the individual papers is not always known) who in Federalist Paper #63 argued the necessity of a “well-constructed Senate” as “sometimes necessary as a defense to the people against their own temporary errors and delusions” because “there are particular moments in public affairs when the people, stimulated by some irregular passion, or some illicit advantage, or misted by the artful misrepresentations of interested men, may call for measures which they themselves will afterwards be the most ready to lament and condemn.”

And: “In these critical moments, how salutary will be the interference of some temperate and respectable body of citizens in order to check the misguided career, and to suspend the blow meditated by the people against themselves, until reason, justice, and truth can regain their authority over the public mind?”

The Constitution was a compromise between slaveholding interests of the South and moneyed interests of the North. For the purpose of uniting the thirteen states into one great market for commerce, the northern delegates wanted laws regulating interstate commerce, and urged that such laws require only a majority of Congress to pass. The South agreed to this, in return for allowing the trade in slaves to continue for twenty years before being outlawed.

Charles Beard warned us that governments-including the government of the United States-are not neutral, that they represent the dominant economic interests, and that their constitutions are intended to serve these interests.”

Jefferson bitterly opposed the strong central government backed by the Federalists. He, with the Republicans, demanded a “Bill of Rights,” to protect citizens from tyranny.

Washington served two terms as president. He then offered his  Farewell Address

1. Preserve the union. Oppose sectionalism

2. Oppose the formation of political parties which would feud.

3. Avoid foreign entanglements–stressing neutrality.

Yikes! The idea of human equality (anti-monarchy, for reason) is out of he bag!)

In Effect, the French Revolution (a very complex class war) destroyed feudalism (which is?)

1798: The Alien and Sedition acts–Stifling dissent for “National Security”

***Harder for an alien to become a citizen (naturalization act–especially aimed at Irish)

***The president can jail and deport “dangerous” non-citizens or people fron “enemy” nations

***a  crime to criticize the government (Franklin’s grandson jailed)

By the early 1800’s, capitalism and imperialism had grown together for about 100 years (remember slavery).

 

Image result for french revolution liberty equality fraternity

***Support or Opposition to the French Revolution was one of many dividing lines in the rapidly growing USA (population explosion) . In addition: a growing gap of rich and poor, free and slave,  Town and Country, Mental and Manual labor (the later two typical of capitalism).

***Ideas of the American and French revolution spread to the French colony, Haiti, where rebels massed and killed colonists. Napolean invaded three times before Touissant L’overture and the INSURECTIONISTS were smashed but they persisted and over a long time (1791 to 1804) the revolution won, in a sense. Haiti (San Domingo then) has suffered ever since. But the long uprising terrified slavers everywhere, and stood as proof against the lies of inate inferority.

François-Dominique Toussaint Louverture–the “black Spartacus”

Part Two: The Interlude as Contradictions Build in

Empire, Nationalism, and Democracy

After the Victorious American “Revolution,” the Contradiction of Capital and Empire

***The Louisiana Purchase of 1803 (Jefferson’s second term) : The Haitian revolt and war with Britain caused Napolean to seek funds. He sold the Louisian territory to the US for about $11 (some say $15) million dollars.The EMPIRE Grew!

Since navigation had opened with Spanish permission along the Mississippi River, and Robert Fulton had invented the steamboat (upriver travel) commerce expanded and slavers involved, especially with cotton, looked west.

Again: by the early 1800’s, capitalism and imperialism had grown together for about 100 years (remember slavery).

Napoleon planned to use his new-found money to invade England, but he never accomplished it.

***Problems in the Louisiana Territory: Slavery; Spaniards (Catholics) vs French slavers fleeing Haiti. And, to underline, slavery in what would become the South.

***1804-06: The Lewis and Clark Expedition reached the Pacific Northwest.

Image result for journals of lewis and clark

Image result for map of lewis and clark expedition

Image result for sacagawea

This web site linked below holds the most accurate representations of the thousands of pages of journals, maps, and other images that Lewis and Clark kept.

https://lewisandclarkjournals.unl.edu/

***The aggressive wars against the original people, Indians, continued throughout North America, Mexico, Central and South America.

***PIRATES! On the Barbary Coast (“from the Halls of Montezuma to the shores of Tripoli). 1800-1805–Jefferson refused to pay tribute (which had been traditionally paid by other nations) and went to war.

The Flying Spaghetti Monster also has Pirates

Literacy was widespread in the new USA. Newspapers spread everywhere–except to rural life where, frequently, the bible was the only literature of the day.

1812–Madison declares war with Brits. Issues: Impressment. Open trade on the seas. The then “northwest” US (as in Detroit, northern Ohio (Brits want to use these areas as a buffer vs US incursions to Canada).

According to some historians, Madison’s plan was to seize Canada. But the US was unready. Brits seize Detroit.

Naval war: USS Constitution wins key battle. Oliver Perry destroys Brit fleet at Put In Bay in Lake Erie. “We have met the enemy and they are ours.”

Image result for oliver perry

1814 Brits burn DC. Attacked Baltimore. Star Spangled banner was written by Francis Scott Key.

Both sides were going broke so they met and negotiated in Ghent, Belgium

Andrew Jackson—Battle of New Orleans, Johnny Horton. This battle happened after the war was over. Jackson, later to be president, was a slaver, land speculator, and Indian fighter.

Treaty of Ghent—Brits refused to discuss impressment, no territory exchanged, war did build nationalism, slavery endured.  Neither side won anything.

 

James Monroe, US president 1817 to 1825. A revolutionary war vet and slaver who favored returning slaves to Liberia, Monroe established what is seen as the first of many US presidential doctrines.

Linked below, the CIA world factbook on Liberia and its capital, Monrovia.

https://www.cia.gov/llibrary/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/li.html

And, Monroe presided over the Treaty of 1818 with Britain. Also know as the London Convention, the treaty drew a line at the 49th parallel. Below that, the USA. Above, Britain. This was another concession of territory from the Brits to the US, and the last.

Later, the Oregon Territory treaty re-established the 49th parallel as the northern boundary of the US.

The Monroe Doctrine of 1823 is seen as the initial defining moment of US imperialism:

Image result for monroe doctrine

Later key US presidential doctrines:

Top 6 Foreign Policy Doctrines

https://www.thoughtco.com/top-six-foreign-policy-doctrines-105473

Empire!

The necessary relentless search for raw materials, markets, cheap labor, and regional control.

 

 

========================================================================

Class Eleven, History 100

Sign in! Sign In! Sign IN!!!

Rich Gibson, PhD. Pennsylvania State University

Emeritus Professor, SDSU

Professor, SWC

Please display name cards in each class.

Our Phantasmagoric Agenda#11

Why are things as they are? We make our own history, but not in circumstances we chose.

“Life can only be understood backwards; but it must be lived forwards. (Kierkegaard)

If you did not get an email from me (and three people didn’t, I am sure), your correct email address is not linked to SWC. So, please email me with your correct email address and change it at SWC as you need to be able to get emergency news.

April 9th

Remember NO CLASS THURSDAY!

1865American Civil War: Robert E. Lee surrenders the Army of Northern Virginia (26,765 troops) to Ulysses S. Grant at Appomattox Court House, Virginia, effectively ending the war.

1916World War I: The Battle of Verdun: German forces launch their third offensive of the battle.  n 2014, Philpott recorded 377,000 French casualties, of whom 162,000 men had been killed, German casualties were 337,000 men and a recent estimate of casualties at Verdun from 1914 to 1918 was 1,250,000 men).[

2003Iraq War: Baghdad falls to American forces. (nobody knows how many mercenaries are in Iraq now but Foreign Policy said, in 2016, that the average of “contractor” to US troops had ballooned to 3 to 1 or abou 26,000 to 9,000.  https://foreignpolicy.com/2016/05/18/private-contractors-are-the-silent-majority-of-obamas-military-mercenaries-iraq-afghanistan/

Our agenda #11

If you didn’t have a chance to turn in a class evaluation (how am I doing as a prof) and a self-evaluation (how are you doing) please just place it in my red traveling salvation show.

1. What IS Up?

***Bridgewater Founder, who predicted the 2008 collapse, suggests that inequalty will lead to another collapse and ?60/40, social crises.

https://www.cbsnews.com/news/ray-dalio-capitalism-needs-reform-wealth-inequality-is-a-national-emergency-60-minutes/

***Tidbits from the NY and LA Times!

picking up where we left off (and some review)

Sun Tzu — ‘There has never been a protracted war from which a country has benefited . . . What is essential in war is victory, not prolonged operations.’

Washington knew this and he knew a guerrilla war needed to be transformed into a “Regular” war in order to gain victory.  Remember Daniel Morgan and Gentleman Johnny Burgoyne.

 

I’d Give PBS a B for their production of the American Revolution (there’s no Howard Zinn) but if you wish to have an easy way through key events, here it is, above.

Below, famous portrayal of the gentlemanly Cornwallis surrender

“Over the course of the war, about 231,000 men served in the Continental Army, though never more than 48,000 at any one time, and never more than 13,000 at any one place. The sum of the Colonial militias numbered upwards of 145,000 men.

France also dispatched a substantial force to North America beginning in 1779, with more than 12,000 soldiers and a substantial fleet joining the Colonial Americans by wars end.

At its peak, the British Army had upwards of 22,000 men at its disposal in North America to combat the rebellion. An additional 25,000 Loyalists, faithful to Great Britain, participated in the conflict as well.

Nearly 30,000 German auxiliaries, or Hessians, were hired out by German princes and served alongside the British for the duration of the war.

How many were killed or wounded?

Throughout the course of the war, an estimated 6,800 Americans were killed in action, 6,100 wounded, and upwards of 20,000 were taken prisoner. Historians believe that at least an additional 17,000 deaths were the result of disease, including about 8,000–12,000 who died while prisoners of war.

Unreliable imperial data places the total casualties for British regulars fighting in the Revolutionary War around 24,000 men. This total number includes battlefield deaths and injuries, deaths from disease, men taken prisoner, and those who remained missing.”   https://www.battlefields.org/learn/articles/american-revolution-faqs

Consider the substance (grand strategy and strategy) of US wars today, and the US counterinsurgency methods in, say, Afghanistan and Iraq.

You can watch General McChrystal describe his book on “Leadership” on CSPAN

https://www.c-span.org/video/?c4514699/gen-stanley-mcchrystal-leadership

Was this a revolution or not? Zinn says “No.”

Reminder: Chalmers Johnson on Revolution http://richgibson.com/johnsonquotes.htm

“Bigotry is the disease of ignorance, of morbid minds; enthusiasm of the free and buoyant. Education and free discussion are the antidotes of both. We are destined to be a barrier against the returns of ignorance and barbarism.

Old Europe will have to lean on our shoulders, and to hobble along by our side, under the monkish trammels of priests and kings, as she can.

What a Colossus shall we be when the Southern continent comes up to our mark! What a stand will it secure as a ralliance for the reason & freedom of the globe! I like the dreams of the future better than the history of the past.

So good night. I will dream on, always fancying that Mrs Adams and yourself are by my side marking the progress and the obliquities of ages and countries.” – Thomas Jefferson to John Adams, Monticello, 1 August 1816

Link below Jefferson and slavery

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bzZnqXvRSLE

Let us discuss “Presentism.”

Both capitalism and empire were born almost simultaneously, rooted in slavery.The US was a growing, slave holding, empire, declaring liberty and freedom–a profound contradiction!

The Articles of Confederation and Shay’s Rebellion

Thomas Jefferson was in France at the time of Shay’s rebellion. He backed it, writing to Madison, “”The tree of liberty must be refreshed from time to time with the blood of patriots and tyrants. It is its natural manure.”

Problems with the Articles of Confederation (1776-’89)

Each state had one vote in the Congress, regardless of its population. The Congress had difficulty legislating as the Articles required nine of the thirteen states to vote to approve any measure.

The national government could not tax citizens directly, only request money from the states.

The national government could not regulate international or

interstate trade.

The national government could not raise an army, only request that the states send soldiers.

Each state only had one vote in Congress, regardless of its population.

There was no executive and no judicial branch of national government (KA)

In 1776 there were more than 500,000 enslaved people in the colony. In the southern region they made up about 40% of he population.

Alex De Toqueville predicted that slavery would destroy the US

Again, what is capitalism?

Looking ahead to the French Revolution: Lafayette, Jefferson, Tom Paine

The Constitution and the Bill of Rights (federalists like Madison vs Republicans like Jefferson).

The Constitution was written by 55 wealthy white men, 25 of them slave owners, in secret.

There was serious, bitter, debate about, among other things, the role of a strong central government.

Supporters of a strong central government were called Federalists, led by Madison and Hamilton–both basically monarchists.

Republicans–not today’s Republicans–were personified by Jefferson, who rejected the possibility of a new monarchy.

The Federalists had more access to popular forms of communications. They mis-characterized the real nature of the document they had created.

Jefferson’s objections led, in part, to the Bill of Rights, attached later.

This was a conservative revolution in substance, yet radical in form. It was conservative in the fact that there was no change in class domination, just location of domination–and slavery remained.

It was very radical in form in its roots in EQUALITY, LIBERTY, HAPPINESS.

Image result for beard economic interpretation of the Constitution

***SLAVERY and the Constitution (key role of property rights):

a.  3/5s clause. 

b. slave trade extended to 1806.

c. Fugitive slave clause.

In 12 of the first 16 presidential elections, a Southern slave owner won. Extending the slave trade to 1806 brought many slaves to America. 

Let us discuss the “Checks and Balances” myth and the branches of the US government. What are they? And one more?

Zinn: “In Federalist Paper #10, James Madison argued that representative government was needed to maintain peace in a society ridden by factional disputes. These disputes came from “the various and unequal distribution of property. Those who hold and those who are without property have ever formed distinct interests in society.” The problem, he said, was how to control the factional struggles that came from inequalities in wealth. Minority factions could be controlled, he said, by the principle that decisions would be by vote of the majority.

So the real problem, according to Madison, was a majority faction, and here the solution was offered by the Constitution, to have “an extensive republic,” that is, a large nation ranging over thirteen states, for then “it will be more difficult for all who feel it to discover their own strength, and to act in unison with each other…. The influence of factious leaders may kindle a flame within their particular States, but will be unable to spread a general conflagration through the other States.”

Madison’s argument can be seen as a sensible argument for having a government which can maintain peace and avoid continuous disorder. But is it the aim of government simply to maintain order, as a referee, between two equally matched fighters?

Or is it that government has some special interest in maintaining a certain kind of order, a certain distribution of power and wealth, a distribution in which government officials are not neutral referees but participants? In that case, the disorder they might worry about is the disorder of popular rebellion against those monopolizing the society’s wealth. This interpretation makes sense when one looks at the economic interests, the social backgrounds, of the makers of the Constitution.

As part of his argument for a large republic to keep the peace, James Madison tells quite clearly, in Federalist #10, whose peace he wants to keep: “A rage for paper money, for an abolition of debts, for an equal division of property, or for any other improper or wicked project, will be less apt to pervade the whole body of the Union than a particular member of it.”

When economic interest is seen behind the political clauses of the Constitution, then the document becomes not simply the work of wise men trying to establish a decent and orderly society, but the work of certain groups trying to maintain their privileges, while giving just enough rights and liberties to enough of the people to ensure popular support.

In the new government, Madison would belong to one party (the Democrat-Republicans) along with Jefferson and Monroe. Hamilton would belong to the rival party (the Federalists) along with Washington and Adams.

But both agreed-one a slaveholder from Virginia, the other a merchant from New York-on the aims of this new government they were establishing.

They were anticipating the long-fundamental agreement of the two political parties in the American system. Hamilton wrote elsewhere in the Federalist Papers that the new Union would be able “to repress domestic faction and insurrection.” He referred directly to Shays’ Rebellion: “The tempestuous situation from which Massachusetts has scarcely emerged evinces that dangers of this kind are not merely speculative.”

It was either Madison or Hamilton (the authorship of the individual papers is not always known) who in Federalist Paper #63 argued the necessity of a “well-constructed Senate” as “sometimes necessary as a defense to the people against their own temporary errors and delusions” because “there are particular moments in public affairs when the people, stimulated by some irregular passion, or some illicit advantage, or misted by the artful misrepresentations of interested men, may call for measures which they themselves will afterwards be the most ready to lament and condemn.”

And: “In these critical moments, how salutary will be the interference of some temperate and respectable body of citizens in order to check the misguided career, and to suspend the blow meditated by the people against themselves, until reason, justice, and truth can regain their authority over the public mind?”

The Constitution was a compromise between slaveholding interests of the South and moneyed interests of the North. For the purpose of uniting the thirteen states into one great market for commerce, the northern delegates wanted laws regulating interstate commerce, and urged that such laws require only a majority of Congress to pass. The South agreed to this, in return for allowing the trade in slaves to continue for twenty years before being outlawed.

Charles Beard warned us that governments-including the government of the United States-are not neutral, that they represent the dominant economic interests, and that their constitutions are intended to serve these interests.”

The Bill of Rights (First Ten Amendments):  Jefferson on religion: “Don’t pick my pocket and don’t break my leg. We’ll be fine.”

Let us examine each of the Bill of Rights, one by one, critically.

Jefferson bitterly opposed the strong central government backed by the Federalists. He, with the Republicans, demanded a “Bill of Rights,” to protect citizens from tyranny.

Washington served two terms as president. He then offered his  Farewell Address

1. Preserve the union. Oppose sectionalism

2. Oppose the formation of political parties which would feud.

3. Avoid foreign entanglements–stressing neutrality.

Yikes! The idea of human equality (anti-monarchy, for reason) is out of he bag!)

 

 

In Effect, the French Revolution destroyed feudalism (which is?)

1798: The Alien and Sedition acts–Stifling dissent for “National Security”

***Harder for an alien to become a citizen (naturalization act–especially aimed at Irish)

***The president can jail and deport “dangerous” non-citizens or people fron “enemy” nations

***a  crime to criticize the government (Franklin’s grandson jailed)

By the early 1800’s, capitalism and imperialism had grown together for about 100 years (remember slavery).

 

=====================================================

Class Ten, History 100

Sign in! Sign In! Sign IN!!!

Rich Gibson, PhD. Pennsylvania State University

Emeritus Professor, SDSU

Professor, SWC

Please display name cards in each class.

Our Phantasmagoric Agenda

Why are things as they are? We make our own history, but not in circumstances we chose.

“People in pacified areas become instruments of their own oppression.” Gibson.

April 4th

1865American Civil War: A day after Union forces capture Richmond, Virginia, U.S. President Abraham Lincoln visits the Confederate capital.

1945 – World War II: Soviet troops liberate Hungary from German occupation and occupy the country itself.

1949Cold War: Twelve nations sign the North Atlantic Treaty creating the North Atlantic Treaty Organization.

1967Martin Luther King Jr. delivers his “Beyond Vietnam: A Time to Break Silence” speech in New York City’s Riverside Church.

“When machines and computers, profit motives and property rights are considered more important than people, the giant triplets of racism, materialism, and militarism are incapable of being conquered,” King said. “

…This business of burning human beings with napalm, of filling our nation’s homes with orphans and widows, of injecting poisonous drugs of hate into veins of people normally humane, of sending men home from dark and bloody battlefields physically handicapped and psychologically deranged, cannot be reconciled with wisdom, justice and love.

A nation that continues year after year to spend more money on military defense than on programs of social uplift is approaching spiritual death.”

1968 – Martin Luther King Jr. is assassinated by James Earl Ray at a motel in Memphis, Tennessee. (Or by someone else?)

From our discussion on Tuesday….

 

Image result for Jack london the scab

Our Agenda 10

Please place evaluations (one paragraph on my performance, and one on yours) in or on my red suitcase–thanks.

1. Remember, catch up by Friday at midnight!

2. NO CLASS April 11th, next Thursday. Don’t worry about closing presentations! 

3. Moving what’s up to the end unless something very pressing arises.

4.  Jill Lepore and her new book on the history of the USA on Cspan.  https://www.c-span.org/video/?450846-1/these-truths

5. Our agenda,  picking up where we left off (and some review)

During the French and Indian wars, colonist militias routinely refused to obey orders from British officers.

Following the battles at Lexington and Concord (the shots heard round the world) repeated skirmishes (and mutual insults) led to the outbreak of the American Revolutionary War.

What have you been taught about monarchs?

In response to the growing rebellion the British adopted the “Intolerable Acts” aka “Coercive Acts.”

Intolerable Acts

Great Britain [1774]

“First, the British government, angered by the Boston Tea Party (1773), passed the Boston Port Bill, closing that city’s harbour until restitution was made for the destroyed tea.

Second, the Massachusetts Government Act abrogated the colony’s charter of 1691, reducing it to the level of a crown colony, replacing the elective local council with an appointive one, enhancing the powers of the military governor, Gen. Thomas Gage, and forbidding town meetings without approval.

Third, the Administration of Justice Act was aimed at protecting British officials charged with capital offenses during law enforcement by allowing them to go to England or another colony for trial.

The fourth Intolerable Act included new arrangements for housing British troops in occupied American dwellings, thus reviving the indignation that surrounded the earlier Quartering Act, which had been allowed to expire in 1770.

Many colonists resisted a break with the Crown, but King George declared the colonies in “rebellion,” in need of suppression by “blows.”

A second Continental Congress convened to petition the King for redress. The petitions failed.  (The 1st Continental Congress had also petitioned the King, to no avail.)

Radical movements for equality and democracy had existed in England in the 1600s and 1700s.

The Ranters believed God was in every human, proselytized nudity and generally ran amok—with few recognizable leaders. Ben Franklin wrote a book about the Ranters.

Image result for the ranters

The Diggers (who became the Levelers ) were anti-authoritarian, anti-monarchist egalitarians. They inspired the hippies of the not too distant past.

 

Image result for the diggers

There were no titled nobility in the colonies. Poor people could move up.  There was no single monarch’s religion. No truly impoverished slums. Ideas about human equality led to “We bow to nobody.” Subservience to anyone was rejected. Colonists came to HATE aristocracy. In the 1770’s, America was the most equitable land in the world–but for SLAVES.

In the south, however, manual labor was held in contempt by big plantation owners. They began to mimic British and French aristocrats in manners, dress, homes and furnishing, etc.

Remember Adams’ question: Who will do the work?

Revolutions must have an ideology. Jefferson wrote the Declaration of Independence.

 1776: The Declaration of Independence. Equality, reason, natural rights, and the right to a revolution when tyranny and oppression are detailed and rejected.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/United_States_Declaration_of_Independence

The Declaration of Independence has had world-wide influence ever since it was published.

Image result for Ho Chi minh us ally

OSS (later renamed as CIA) Deer Team members pose with Viet Minh leaders Ho Chi Minh and Vo Nguyen Giap during training at Tan Trao in August 1945. Deer Team members standing, l to r, are Rene Defourneaux, (Ho), Allison Thomas, (Giap), Henry Prunier and Paul Hoagland, far right. Kneeling, left, are Lawrence Vogt and Aaron Squires.

Ho Chi Minh wrote a Declaration of Independence for Vietnam in September, 1945, shortly after the Vietnamese forces, US allies, defeated the Japanese.

In 1775, The British response: Why are these slave owners complaining about tyranny, demanding liberty?

What will be the advantages and disadvantages of the British and the Rebels?

Washington, living with his troops, wintered at Valley Forge. His men were starving. Some were deserting. Many didn’t have winter clothes.

A quick victory was needed to regain morale throughout the new “US” and especially to rekindle belief in victory among the volunteer troops.

1776 Xmas, Washington Crosses Delaware, attacks Hessian mercenaries. Big boost to American morale

Let us look at Sun Tzu and one of the better Counterinsurgency (COIN) books, by Galula

Summarizing Sun Tzu!

http://richgibson.com/discusssuntzu.htm

http://richgibson.com/counterinsurgency.htm

Or Mao (we can be certain Washington never read Mao, nor Sun Tzu, but the lessons of guerrilla war were already well known).

Related image

Mao Tse Tung: The enemy advances, we retreat; the enemy camps, we harass; the enemy tires, we attack; the enemy retreats, we pursue.

 

Many historians consider the fact that Washington was able to keep the army intact at Valley Forge, to re-train the soldiers into a more powerful fighting force, is Washington’s greatest victory of the eight year long war. Still, about 2,000 soldiers died at Valley Forge, more than in any single battle.

“Bloody Tarleton” who chased Francis Marion, “the Swamp Fox” and never caught him–but instituted what today would be called a fairly “mild Kill All, Burn All, Loot All” campaign, making the rebels hate the British still more.

Image result for general tarleton british

Battles to Saratoga: September 1876 to October 1877

Gentleman Johnny Burgoyne with 8000 British soldiers, carts carrying his silverware, hundreds of servants and women, and a handful of Indian scouts sets out from Canada to split the colonies in half. It didn’t go so well.

Burgoyne is initially met by 500 guerrilla fighters under Daniel Morgan. They know themselves, know the enemy and know the terrain.

Who will they kill first? What would Sun Tzu suggest?

What of Burgoyne?

I’d Give PBS a B for their production of the American Revolution (there’s no Howard Zinn) but if you wish to have an easy way through key events, here it is, above.

Below, famous portrayal of the gentlemanly Cornwallis surrender

“Over the course of the war, about 231,000 men served in the Continental Army, though never more than 48,000 at any one time, and never more than 13,000 at any one place. The sum of the Colonial militias numbered upwards of 145,000 men.

France also dispatched a substantial force to North America beginning in 1779, with more than 12,000 soldiers and a substantial fleet joining the Colonial Americans by wars end.

At its peak, the British Army had upwards of 22,000 men at its disposal in North America to combat the rebellion. An additional 25,000 Loyalists, faithful to Great Britain, participated in the conflict as well.

Nearly 30,000 German auxiliaries, or Hessians, were hired out by German princes and served alongside the British for the duration of the war.

How many were killed or wounded?

Throughout the course of the war, an estimated 6,800 Americans were killed in action, 6,100 wounded, and upwards of 20,000 were taken prisoner. Historians believe that at least an additional 17,000 deaths were the result of disease, including about 8,000–12,000 who died while prisoners of war.

Unreliable imperial data places the total casualties for British regulars fighting in the Revolutionary War around 24,000 men. This total number includes battlefield deaths and injuries, deaths from disease, men taken prisoner, and those who remained missing.”   https://www.battlefields.org/learn/articles/american-revolution-faqs

Consider the substance (grand strategy and strategy) of US wars today, and the US counterinsurgency methods in, say, Afghanistan and Iraq.

You can watch General McChrystal describe his book on “Leadership” on CSPAN

https://www.c-span.org/video/?c4514699/gen-stanley-mcchrystal-leadership

Was this a revolution or not? Zinn says “No.”

Reminder: Chalmers Johnson on Revolution http://richgibson.com/johnsonquotes.htm

“Bigotry is the disease of ignorance, of morbid minds; enthusiasm of the free and buoyant. Education and free discussion are the antidotes of both. We are destined to be a barrier against the returns of ignorance and barbarism.

Old Europe will have to lean on our shoulders, and to hobble along by our side, under the monkish trammels of priests and kings, as she can.

What a Colossus shall we be when the Southern continent comes up to our mark! What a stand will it secure as a ralliance for the reason & freedom of the globe! I like the dreams of the future better than the history of the past.

So good night. I will dream on, always fancying that Mrs Adams and yourself are by my side marking the progress and the obliquities of ages and countries.” – Thomas Jefferson to John Adams, Monticello, 1 August 1816

Link below Jefferson and slavery

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bzZnqXvRSLE

Let us discuss “Presentism.”

Both capitalism and empire were born almost simultaneously, rooted in slavery.The US was a growing, slave holding, empire, declaring liberty and freedom–a profound contradiction!

The Articles of Confederation and Shay’s Rebellion

Thomas Jefferson was in France at the time of Shay’s rebellion. He backed it, writing to Madison, “”The tree of liberty must be refreshed from time to time with the blood of patriots and tyrants. It is its natural manure.”

Problems with the Articles of Confederation (1776-’89)

Each state had one vote in the Congress, regardless of its population. The Congress had difficulty legislating as the Articles required nine of the thirteen states to vote to approve any measure.

The national government could not tax citizens directly, only request money from the states.

The national government could not regulate international or interstate trade.

The national government could not raise an army, only request that the states send soldiers.

Each state only had one vote in Congress, regardless of its population.

There was no executive and no judicial branch of national government (KA)

In 1776 there were more than 500,000 enslaved people in the colony. In the southern region they made up about 40% of he population.

Alex De Toqueville predicted that slavery would destroy the US

Again, what is capitalism?

Looking ahead to the French Revolution: Lafayette, Jefferson, Tom Paine

The Constitution and the Bill of Rights (federalists like Madison vs Republicans like Jefferson).

The Constitution was written by 55 wealthy white men, 25 of them slave owners, in secret.

There was serious, bitter, debate about, among other t hings, the role of a strong central government.

Supporters of a strong central government were called Federalists, led by Madison and Hamilton–both basically monarchists.

Republicans–not today’s Republicans–were personified by Jefferson, who rejected the possibility of a new monarchy.

The Federalists had more access to popular forms of communications. They mis-characterized the real nature of the document they had created.

Jefferson’s objections led, in part, to the Bill of Rights, attached later.

This was a conservative revolution in substance, yet radical in form. It was conservative in the fact that there was no change in class domination, just location of domination–and slavery remained.

It was very radical in form in its roots in EQUALITY, LIBERTY, HAPPINESS.

Image result for beard economic interpretation of the Constitution

***SLAVERY and the Constitution (key role of property rights):

a.  3/5s clause. 

b. slave trade extended to 1806.

c. Fugitive slave clause.

In 12 of the first 16 presidential elections, a Southern slave owner won. Extending the slave trade to 1806 brought many slaves to America. 

Zinn: “In Federalist Paper #10, James Madison argued that representative government was needed to maintain peace in a society ridden by factional disputes. These disputes came from “the various and unequal distribution of property. Those who hold and those who are without property have ever formed distinct interests in society.” The problem, he said, was how to control the factional struggles that came from inequalities in wealth. Minority factions could be controlled, he said, by the principle that decisions would be by vote of the majority.

So the real problem, according to Madison, was a majority faction, and here the solution was offered by the Constitution, to have “an extensive republic,” that is, a large nation ranging over thirteen states, for then “it will be more difficult for all who feel it to discover their own strength, and to act in unison with each other…. The influence of factious leaders may kindle a flame within their particular States, but will be unable to spread a general conflagration through the other States.”

Madison’s argument can be seen as a sensible argument for having a government which can maintain peace and avoid continuous disorder. But is it the aim of government simply to maintain order, as a referee, between two equally matched fighters?

Or is it that government has some special interest in maintaining a certain kind of order, a certain distribution of power and wealth, a distribution in which government officials are not neutral referees but participants? In that case, the disorder they might worry about is the disorder of popular rebellion against those monopolizing the society’s wealth. This interpretation makes sense when one looks at the economic interests, the social backgrounds, of the makers of the Constitution.

As part of his argument for a large republic to keep the peace, James Madison tells quite clearly, in Federalist #10, whose peace he wants to keep: “A rage for paper money, for an abolition of debts, for an equal division of property, or for any other improper or wicked project, will be less apt to pervade the whole body of the Union than a particular member of it.”

When economic interest is seen behind the political clauses of the Constitution, then the document becomes not simply the work of wise men trying to establish a decent and orderly society, but the work of certain groups trying to maintain their privileges, while giving just enough rights and liberties to enough of the people to ensure popular support.

In the new government, Madison would belong to one party (the Democrat-Republicans) along with Jefferson and Monroe. Hamilton would belong to the rival party (the Federalists) along with Washington and Adams.

But both agreed-one a slaveholder from Virginia, the other a merchant from New York-on the aims of this new government they were establishing.

They were anticipating the long-fundamental agreement of the two political parties in the American system. Hamilton wrote elsewhere in the Federalist Papers that the new Union would be able “to repress domestic faction and insurrection.” He referred directly to Shays’ Rebellion: “The tempestuous situation from which Massachusetts has scarcely emerged evinces that dangers of this kind are not merely speculative.”

It was either Madison or Hamilton (the authorship of the individual papers is not always known) who in Federalist Paper #63 argued the necessity of a “well-constructed Senate” as “sometimes necessary as a defense to the people against their own temporary errors and delusions” because “there are particular moments in public affairs when the people, stimulated by some irregular passion, or some illicit advantage, or misted by the artful misrepresentations of interested men, may call for measures which they themselves will afterwards be the most ready to lament and condemn.”

And: “In these critical moments, how salutary will be the interference of some temperate and respectable body of citizens in order to check the misguided career, and to suspend the blow meditated by the people against themselves, until reason, justice, and truth can regain their authority over the public mind?”

The Constitution was a compromise between slaveholding interests of the South and moneyed interests of the North. For the purpose of uniting the thirteen states into one great market for commerce, the northern delegates wanted laws regulating interstate commerce, and urged that such laws require only a majority of Congress to pass. The South agreed to this, in return for allowing the trade in slaves to continue for twenty years before being outlawed.

Charles Beard warned us that governments-including the government of the United States-are not neutral, that they represent the dominant economic interests, and that their constitutions are intended to serve these interests.”

The Bill of Rights (First Ten Amendments):  Jefferson on religion: “Don’t pick my pocket and don’t break my leg. We’ll be fine.”

Jefferson bitterly opposed the strong central government backed by the Federalists. He, with the Republicans, demanded a “Bill of Rights,” to protect citizens from tyranny.

Washington served two terms as president. He then offered his  Farewell Address

1. Preserve the union. Oppose sectionalism

2. Oppose the formation of political parties which would feud.

3. Avoid foreign entanglements–stressing neutrality.

Yikes! The idea of human equality (anti-monarchy, for reason) is out of he bag!)

 

 

In Effect, the French Revolution destroyed feudalism (which is?)

1798: The Alien and Sedition acts–Stifling dissent for “National Security”

***Harder for an alien to become a citizen (naturalization act–especially aimed at Irish)

***The president can jail and deport “dangerous” non-citizens or people fron “enemy” nations

***a  crime to criticize the government (Franklin’s grandson jailed)

By the early 1800’s, capitalism and imperialism had grown together for about 100 years (remember slavery).

====================================================

Class Nine, History 100

Sign in! Sign In! Sign IN!!!

Rich Gibson, PhD. Pennsylvania State University

Emeritus Professor, SDSU

Professor, SWC

Please display name cards in each class.

Our Phantasmagoric Agenda

Why are things as they are? We make our own history, but not in circumstances we chose.

The man (Should have said “person)who is swimming against the stream knows the strength of it. …Unknown

March 31, Chavez Day or April Fool?

FAIR WARNING! Far too many students are far too far behind. If you are not fully caught up by Friday, at midnight, you will not pass this course. If you do not believe you can catch up, try to drop the class now. You do not want an F on your record in a community college.

April 2

1917World War I: United States President Woodrow Wilson asks the U.S. Congress for a declaration of war on Germany.

IWW Eugene Debs was jailed for opposing WWI. He ran for president from jail and got more than one million votes.

Image result for eugene debs against wwI

1972 – Actor Charlie Chaplin returns to the United States for the first time since being labeled a communist during the Red Scare in the early 1950s.

1982Falklands War: Argentina invades the Falkland Islands.

Our Agenda 9

1. What’s Up?

***The end of the empire!

***Chavez Day and Who is not made a Hero?

***Where’s Mueller?

***Any spring vacation stories that can be spoken in a classroom?

***More?

2. Review: What’s history? Capitalism (what free market given the bailouts)? Empire?

3. The Spider and the Fly

3.What is Racism?

***Where does it come from?

***Who is servied?

***What is it’s history–up to date?

***Why does it persist? And what about the Spider and the Fly?

Below, an image from a meeting of the American Eugenics Society. Several of their key, racist, founders helped author the original SAT.

Image result for american eugenics society

From Harvard, 1990’s racism

4. Key issues that led to the American Revolution (was it such?)

***American colonists, despite thinking of themselves as British subjects (and many knowing the history of reforms won from the monarchs), had developed their own systems of governance and saw no reason to be ruled by “Tyrants” an ocean away. Slavers, they didn’t want to be “slaves” to a monarch.

***King George the Third and parliament insisted that the colonists pay a large share for the French and Indian wars (or Seven Years Wars). Britain’s exchequer was broke from those wars and related wars in Europe.

Image result for George III

***Colonists bitterly opposed the Stamp Act, Tea Act, the Quartering of Troops, and other forms of taxation, or oppression.

***While not outlined in any American document, the idea of equality, or white man’s equality, was on the loose–from the enlightenment–as was “consent of the governed.” These are RADICAL ideas.

***A legitimacy crisis was brewing: You are not fit to rule. God did not give you the right to rule, and certainly not your children to rule (Payne in Common Sense).

Image result for paine common sense

***Some Americans thought they should be able to send colonists to serve in British parliament. This would be a “liberal,” reformist, position.

***Taxation without representation!

***Radicals like Tom Paine. Patrick Henry, and Sam Adams urged a complete break with Britain–revolution!

Below, Tom Paine, author of “Common Sense”

Image result for tom paine

Below, Patrick Henry

Image result for Patrick Henry

Below, Sam Adams (John’s brother) Key leader of the Son’s of Liberty

Image result for sam adams

 

***What is a revolution and how/why do they happen?

https://richgibson.com/johnsonquotes.htm

***Accelerators! Like what?

***Justice demands organization–the Sons of Liberty, Committees of Correspondence, and more open, semi-secret, and secret groups began to grow among the colonists.

***American colonists began to hide weapons in preparation for things to come. The British chose to attempt to confiscate the guns, cannon, etc.

***This led to the famous battles of Lexington and Concord, Massachusetts–outside Boston.

 

 

—————————————————————————————–

Class Eight, History 100

Sign in! Sign In! Sign IN!!!

Rich Gibson, PhD. Pennsylvania State University

Emeritus Professor, SDSU

Professor, SWC

Please display name cards in each class.

Our Phantasmagoric Agenda

Why are things as they are? We make our own history, but not in circumstances we chose.

Neither the life of an individual nor the history of a society can be understood without understanding both. C. Wright Mills

Image result for mills the new men of power

March 20th (I know-yesterday–but interesting)

1852Harriet Beecher Stowe‘s Uncle Tom’s Cabin is published.

Image result for uncle toms cabin

1942World War II: General Douglas MacArthur, at Terowie, South Australia, makes his famous speech regarding the fall of the Philippines, in which he says: “I came out of Bataan and I shall return”.

Image result for douglas macarthur

2003Invasion of Iraq: In the early hours of the morning, the United States and three other countries (the UK, Australia and Poland) begin military operations in Iraq.

The Chilcot report, from a critical British view, is linked here:

https://www.theguardian.com/uk-news/2016/jul/06/iraq-inquiry-key-points-from-the-chilcot-report

Joe Wilson’s Op-ed: “What I didn’t find in Africa”  https://www.nytimes.com/2003/07/06/opinion/what-i-didn-t-find-in-africa.html

Yosemite Falls Rainbow

This footage of rainbow mist rolling off Yosemite Falls is truly mesmerizing.

Posted by National Geographic Adventure on Friday, February 22, 2019

Our Agenda 8

1. Moving What’s up to the end but one quick note on “War is everything.” NYTimes….

2. Continuing on the twin births of empire and Capitalism:

***The battle for surplus value–this is Marx’s discovery of capital’s secret.

***Henry Ford and those like him form a class, the Ruling Class. But Henry has to war with Chrysler, GM, Toyota, etc. bosses, and us—workers

***My Co–workers and I form a class (workers, soldiers, peasants, etc). We are at odds with Henry et. al., and each other, as we must compete for jobs. Why? Sometime in the past we were driven off the land.

The Commons from the Goose!

http://www.onthecommons.org/magazine/%E2%80%9Cstealing-common-goose%E2%80%9D#sthash.hMsXZSMk.dpbs

So, Capitalism can reasonably be seen as a war of all on all.

***Charlie Chaplin Factory Work

***Gateways to Marx on Capital: https://richgibson.com/gateways.htm

***Pyramid of Capitalism

Image result for rich gibson pyramid of capitalist system

The IWW preamble: https://www.iww.org/culture/official/preamble.shtml

***US Financial Crises https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_economic_crises

***Ponzi Schemes

Image result for ponzi

What is capitalism hiding (Bertell Ollman): http://richgibson.com/OllmanCapitalistsHide.htm

 

We will return to US financial crises up to the 2008 collapse after spring break. We will also ask: How have people resisted? Check “The Spider and the Fly.”

To Howard Zinn Chapter One: what is his standpoint?

Zinn says he will do history from the bottom up, from the eyes of poor and working people.We shall take his word for it, critically.

He urges us to recognize that nations are not singular, united communities but internally divided–mainly by class. He’s an internationalist. Pro-worker, mildly anti-capitalist.

Zinn says there were 4 million indigenous people in what became the US before the Europeans arrived. They have been under constant pressure, really warfare, almost ever since.

On to Professor Devine, “American Story.” Chapters 3 and 4

In the 16th Century, new nation-states came into being in what is now Europe. With that came incipient nationalism–the idea that because of an accident of birth and geography, people in a given area have over-arching interests in common (despite monarchs and tyranny, classes forming, etc.)

England was witnessing great population growth and, at the same time, British elites were driving people off of and away from commonly held land. Grotesque levels of poverty grew And, a rebellious poem circulated:

http://www.onthecommons.org/magazine/%E2%80%9Cstealing-common-goose%E2%80%9D#sthash.3vTn32Am.dpbs

In America in the 1700s, the colonies developed somewhat differently, although they had in common ideas of self-determination, rule of law, consent of the governed, and a growing notion: We are rebels.

Given the differences between the developing colonies, Devine wonders how they can become a single nation.

Professor Devine offers a unique take on what was really an invasion: “Cultural negotiations.”

The slave trade developed alongside “Indentured Servitude.” These were Europeans, mostly British at the outset, who sold their labor for a given period of time, often seven years, in exchange for the price of passage. This was, at base, a somewhat more gentle form of slavery–as there was an end to it in the future.

In the early 1700’s modern thought about racism, the idea that a given group of people are not humans, didn’t exist. That idea was manufactured as a useful, profitable, divide and rule scam.

Next class, after spring break, we will ask, how have people resisted over time, how they have been derailed, and, importantly, what is racism and why does it persist.

Have fun on break, but don’t forget everything we have done!!!

Pending Questions

What is history?

What are the competing standpoints on historiography?

How to spot lies?

How do things change, if they do?

Why Have Government? What is the History of governments?

What is tyranny? How do masters rule? How do people resist?

What is a revolution? Why and how do they happen?

What is capitalism?

Imperialism?

Socialism?

Communism?

Racism? History?

How do ideas become material forces, if they do at all?

Ponzi scheme?

How shall we treat religion?

Why do people move?

How to do college and where to go

 


Class Seven, History 100

Sign in! Sign In! Sign IN!!!

Rich Gibson, PhD. Pennsylvania State University

Emeritus Professor, SDSU

Professor, SWC

Please display name cards in each class.

Our Phantasmagoric Agenda

Why are things as they are? We make our own history, but not in circumstances we chose.

“History will be kind to me for I intend to write it.”
Winston S. Churchill

Remember, NO CLASS NEXT WEEK. Spring Break!

On the heels of the American Revolution, the French made a Revolution in 1789, deeply influenced by the ideals of the American revolution. Nearly 100 years later…

March 18th 1871

The Paris Commune–Lasted about 2 months

The Paris Commune was a revolutionary uprising of workers who ruled Paris democratically for two months in 1871

https://www.thoughtco.com/paris-commune-4147849

March 19th

Full Moon on March 20th! Sunrise Highway!

You should have received an email from me. If you didn’t, I don’t have your correct email address. Email me.

If you are behind, catch up!

1649 – The House of Commons of England passes an act abolishing the House of Lords, declaring it “useless and dangerous to the people of England”. We will see parallels soon.

1920 – The United States Senate rejects the Treaty of Versailles for the second time (the first time was on November 19, 1919). The vote failed to gain a 2/3rds majority. Part of the opposition linked the treaty to the League of Nations which many opposed.

1945 – World War II: Adolf Hitler issues his “Nero Decree” ordering all industries, military installations, shops, transportation facilities and communications facilities in Germany to be destroyed.

1982Falklands War: Argentinian forces land on South Georgia Island, precipitating war with the United Kingdom.

2011Libyan Civil War: After the failure of Muammar Gaddafi‘s forces to take Benghazi, French Air Force launches Opération Harmattan, beginning foreign military intervention in Libya.

Blame Lawrence

Our Agenda 7

1. What is Up?

Gary Grandin’s New Book (22 minutes)

https://www.c-span.org/video/?457974-6/author-discussion-american-history

***Briefly: School worker strikes and job actions.

***Military planning a change in the nature of war.

***Fascism emerging as popular movement. What is it? 

2. Expanding on Professor Devine: The Enlightenment

3. What is capitalism?

Capitalism via Adam Smith

Capitalism via Henry Ford

Capitalism via FW Taylor

Capitalism and its crises.

What is capitalism hiding  http://richgibson.com/OllmanCapitalistsHide.htm

How have people resisted?

4. Howard Zinn Peoples’ History Chapter one. What is his standpoint?

Pending Questions

Why Have Government? What is the History of governments?

What is capitalism?

Imperialism?

Socialism?

Communism?

Racism? History?

Ponzi scheme?

How shall we treat religion?

How to do college and where to go

================================================

Class Six, History 100

Sign in! Sign In! Sign IN!!!

Rich Gibson, PhD. Pennsylvania State University

Emeritus Professor, SDSU

Professor, SWC

Please display name cards in each class.

Our Phantasmagoric Agenda

Why are things as they are? We make our own history, but not in circumstances we chose.

Throughout history, it has been the inaction of those who could have acted; the indifference of those who should have known better; the silence of the voice of justice when it mattered most; that has made it possible for evil to triumph. Haile Selassie

March 14th PI day!

  1. Pi represents the ratio of a circle’s circumference to its diameter. No matter how big or small the circle is, the ratio never changes. It will always be the same.
  2. Pi is irrational, meaning its decimal representation is infinite and its exact value cannot be determined.

1794Eli Whitney is granted a patent for the cotton gin. (The invention from hell)

The impact of the cotton gin on slavery, capitalism, empire and war.   https://dp.la/primary-source-sets/cotton-gin-and-the-expansion-of-slavery

1900 – The Gold Standard Act is ratified, placing United States currency on the gold standard. (Nixon abandoned any pretense of the gold standard. Now, the dollar is backed only by the military).

1903 – The Hay–Herrán Treaty, granting the United States the right to build the Panama Canal, is ratified by the United States Senate. The Senate of Colombia would later reject the treaty.

1964 – A jury in Dallas finds Jack Ruby guilty of killing Lee Harvey Oswald, the assumed assassin of John F. Kennedy.

Our Phantasmagoric Agenda Six

Catch up with your reading responses! Don’t be doomed.

1. I need to move what’s up to the end again, to catch up to the syllabus.

2. Advice about colleges and universities

*Get scholarships! Grades suck, but grades matter. What would Kim Philby do?

*Select the best possible school–with the best reputation–schools are Not equal (UC vs CSU vs CC)

*Determine to finish from the outset. Don’t just stick your toe in.

*Find a mentor–fast–get help with right classes and schedule. Visit profs during office hours.

*Stay away from frats/sororities and 7 day a week parties.

*Make an effort to connect with and learn from people from different backgrounds. Make friends!

*Pick classes with care–ask your mentor–other students–don’t count on RateMyProf.

*Read the syllabus! Follow it. Keep up. Check the syllabus and agenda before every class. Read ahead!

*Sit in front if you can stand it. Attend class! Five minutes early–at least!

*Use writing centers. If they suck and always only use formulas, get Ken Macrorie’s I Search Paper online.

*Proofread. Don’t just spell check. Get someone else to proof too.

*Create a disciplined schedule that includes exercise at least 30 minutes a day 4 days a week.

Don’t be discouraged by crappy classes, bad profs. If someone is stealing your education‑‑steal it back. You are responsible for your own education.

Don’t be suckered by bad, for‑profit, colleges (Corinthean, Trump U, etc.) as you will get a worthless degree and lots of debt.

A fine prof who is a friend adds: “eat right and sleep. And become a serious person. That is, some of the best things in life aren’t fun or entertaining.

“Finally, I would say that even though all colleges aren’t alike, what you get out of them is to a large extent, much larger than an 18 year old would usually expect, up to you. There are many incredibly intelligent people even in crappy schools. Be serious about finding them.”

3. Fast extension on the Master/Slave allegory as a Critique of Tyranny–more on how masters rule. And the “Politics of Obedience.”

4. Rosa on Empire   http://richgibson.com/twinbirths.html

5. Devine Chapter One and Two–the invasion begins. Theeearly births of capital, empire, and racism. 

***How shall we treat religion?

***The Requerimiento:  https://doctrineofdiscovery.org/requerimiento/

***Building Missions and (some) teacher resistance

***Understanding slavery (and racism) is key to understanding the history of the USA–a timeline:   https://sharondraper.com/timeline.pdf

But note a problem in the link above: the word “racism” never appears and “race” appears only once.

In addition, the author says, “African Slaves in the New World Spanish settlers bring slaves from Africa to Santo Domingo (now the capital of the Dominican Republic).” Those people were not necessarily slaves when they left Africa. They were students, doctors, peasants, etc., and then they were enslaved.

6. What IS Up????  Somolia! More school worker strikes. Chelsea Manning jailed again.

===================================================

Class five, History 100

Sign in! Sign In! Sign IN!!!

Rich Gibson, PhD. Pennsylvania State University

Emeritus Professor, SDSU

Professor, SWC

Please display name cards in each class.

Our Phantasmagoric Agenda

Why are things as they are? We make our own history, but not in circumstances we chose.

People without the knowledge of their history, their origins, their culture; they are trees without roots:  Garvey.

March 12th

1885Tonkin Campaign: France captures the citadel of Bắc Ninh. What is France doing in Vietnam?

1940Winter War: Finland signs the Moscow Peace Treaty with the Soviet Union, ceding almost all of Finnish Karelia. Finnish troops and the remaining population are immediately evacuated.

The “World at War” series by the BBC, episode 9, “Stalingrad,” is linked here:  https://www.dailymotion.com/video/x125hls

1947Cold War: The Truman Doctrine is proclaimed to help stem the spread of Communism.

US presidential doctrines, from Monroe to Trump, are listed and described here  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/United_States_presidential_doctrines

1999 – Former Warsaw Pact members the Czech Republic, Hungary and Poland join NATO.

2011 – A reactor at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant melts and explodes and releases radioactivity into the atmosphere a day after Japan’s earthquake.

Our Agenda

1. Let us move What’s Up to the end as we need to catch up a bit.

2. Questions about the syllabus.

3. Critical thinking through dialectical materialism. This is how I think.

a. http://www.richgibson.com/diamatoutline.html

b. http://www.richgibson.com/scedialectical4.htm

4. The Master/Slave contradiction, a practical demonstration of contradictions in theory and practice.   http://richgibson.com/masterslave.htm

5. Chapters 1 and 2 in American Story by Professor Divine.

a. 1492 Columbus sailed the blue and what else?

***The Spanish Inquisition

***The Requerimiento

***Building Missions and (some) teacher resistance

***Understanding slavery (and racism) is key to understanding the history of the USA–a timeline:   https://sharondraper.com/timeline.pdf

But note a problem in the link above: the word “racism” never appears and “race” appears only once.

In addition, the author says, “African Slaves in the New World Spanish settlers bring slaves from Africa to Santo Domingo (now the capital of the Dominican Republic).” Those people were not necessarily slaves when they left Africa. They were students, doctors, peasants, etc., and then they were enslaved.

6. What IS Up????  Somolia! More school worker strikes. Chelsea Manning jailed again.

Pending Questions

Why Have Government? What is the History of governments?

What is capitalism?

Imperialism?

Socialism?

Communism?

Racism? History?

Ponzi scheme?

How shall we treat religion?

How to do college and where to go

 

 

==================================================

Class four, History 100

Sign in! Sign In! Sign IN!!!

Rich Gibson, PhD. Pennsylvania State University

Emeritus Professor, SDSU

Professor, SWC

Please display name cards in each class.

Our Phantasmagoric Agenda

Why are things as they are? We make our own history, but not in circumstances we chose.

People are trapped in history and history is trapped in them. James Baldwin

Foreshadowing: Mr Micawber’s famous, and oft-quoted, recipe for happiness: “Annual income twenty pounds, annual expenditure nineteen [pounds] nineteen [shillings] and six [pence], result happiness. Annual income twenty pounds, annual expenditure twenty pounds ought and six, result misery.” (Dickens, “Copperfield”)

Mocking nuclear war:

March 7th

1876Alexander Graham Bell is granted a patent for an invention he calls the “telephone“.

1936 – Prelude to World War II: In violation of the Locarno Pact and the Treaty of Versailles, Germany reoccupies the Rhineland.

Image result for germany occupies rhineland

950Cold War: The Soviet Union issues a statement denying that Klaus Fuchs served as a Soviet spy. Of course, he was a Soviet spy, supplying the USSR with US’ atomic secrets.

Image result for klaus fuchs

Who wasn’t allowed to participate in the Manhattan Project?

Image result for einstein tongue out

1965Bloody Sunday: A group of 600 civil rights marchers is brutally attacked by state and local police in Selma, Alabama.

1986Challenger Disaster: Divers from the USS Preserver locate the crew cabin of Challenger on the ocean floor.

Our Agenda #4

1, Questions about the syllabus?

2. What’s up???

***Napalm and Google!

3. Concluding “why have school?”  School segregation https://edbuild.org/content/23-billion

a. What cannot be taught in most US schools?

b. What of resistance in schools–from students, teachers, the public?

c. More on the social context of school.

2. Reintroducing Chalmers Johnson

3. Introducing Howard Zinn

4. How to think

a. Spotting Lies

b. How do things change (and things DO change) in the material world.

5. The Master/slave allegory.

Pending Questions

Why Have Government? What is the History of governments?

What is capitalism?

Imperialism?

Socialism?

Communism?

Fascism?

Racism? History?

Ponzi scheme?

How shall we treat religion?

How to do college and where to go

 

===================================================

Class three, History 100

Sign in! Sign In! Sign IN!!!

Rich Gibson, PhD. Pennsylvania State University

Emeritus Professor, SDSU

Professor, SWC

Please display name cards in each class.

Our Phantasmagoric Agenda

Why are things as they are? We make our own history, but not in circumstances we chose.

An army of sheep led by a lion would defeat an army of lions led by a sheep. Arab Proverb

 

March 5

1616Nicolaus Copernicus‘s book On the Revolutions of the Heavenly Spheres is added to the Index of Forbidden Books 73 years after it was first published.

1770Boston Massacre: Five Americans, including Crispus Attucks, are fatally shot by British troops in an event that would contribute to the outbreak of the American Revolutionary War (also known as the American War of Independence) five years later.

Image result for boston massacre

 

1933Great Depression: President Franklin D. Roosevelt declares a “bank holiday“, closing all U.S. banks and freezing all financial transactions.

1933 – Adolf Hitler‘s Nazi Party receives 43.9% at the Reichstag elections, which allows the Nazis to later pass the Enabling Act and establish a dictatorship. (9 Minutes)

http://richgibson.com/synopsisfascim.htm

http://richgibson.com/fascism.html

1953Joseph Stalin, the longest serving leader of the Soviet Union, dies at his Volynskoe dacha in Moscow after being hit by a cerebral hemorrhage.

Image result for joseph stalin lenin trotsky

1963 – American country music stars Patsy Cline, Hawkshaw Hawkins, Cowboy Copas and their pilot Randy Hughes are killed in a plane crash in Camden, Tennessee.

Our Agenda #3

1. What IS up???

2. Questions about the syllabus?

3. Fast review: What is History?

4. Why have school? (an exercise in critical, to the root, thinking–studying contradictions in the real world–we all have experience with school).

a. Why is school there?

b. What are the main things going on in school?

c. What are the main things going on in society?

d. What of resistance?

Meet Chalmers Johnson, author of the “Nemesis” Trilogy, who says Americans know so little history, they can’t connect cause and effect.

Pending Questions

Why Have Government? What is the History of governments?

What is capitalism?

Imperialism?

Socialism?

Communism?

Fascism?

Racism? History?

Ponzi scheme?

How shall we treat religion?

How to do college and where to go

 


Class two, History 100

Rich Gibson, PhD. Pennsylvania State University

Emeritus Professor, SDSU

Professor, SWC

Please display name cards in each class.

Our Phantasmagoric Agenda

Why are things as they are? We make our own history, but not in circumstances we chose.

“Shams and delusions are esteemed for the soundest truth, but reality is fabulous.” Henry David Thoreau

February 27th

1864American Civil War: The first Northern prisoners arrive at the Confederate prison at Andersonville, Georgia.

“Andersonville, or Camp Sumter as it was known officially, held more prisoners at any given time than any of the other Confederate military prisons. It was built in early 1864 after Confederate officials decided to move the large number of Federal prisoners in and around Richmond to a place of greater security and more abundant food. During the 14 months it existed, more than 45,000 Union soldiers were confined here. Of these, almost 13,000 died from disease, poor sanitation, malnutrition, overcrowding, or exposure to the elements.”  https://www.battlefields.org/learn/articles/andersonville-prison

1933Reichstag fire: Germany‘s parliament building in Berlin. What is fascism?

1973 – The American Indian Movement occupies Wounded Knee in protest of the federal government. How many major battles have there been at Wounded Knee?

February 28th

1525Aztec king Cuauhtémoc is executed on the order of conquistador Hernán Cortés.

The racist SDSU portrayal of the “Aztec”

Image result for monty montezuma

1991 – The first Gulf War ends.

1993 – The Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms agents raid the Branch Davidian church in Waco, Texas with a warrant to arrest the group’s leader David Koresh. Four ATF agents and six Davidians die in the initial raid, starting a 51-day standoff. 76 people died in the Federal’s terror CS gas attack.

2013Pope Benedict XVI resigns as the pope of the Catholic Church, becoming the first pope to do so since Pope Gregory XII, in 1415.

Image result for god's rottweiler

Our Agenda #2

1. What’s Up?

***NY Times!

*** Let us wait for Mueller and the Southern District of New York before we do the accusations of Trump, colluuuusion, etc.

***Life at the Rouge and US auto in China.

***Wars in Iraq, Syria, Afghanistan and many more. What do you know? Want to know?

***Trump, Kim, in HANOI!!!! Vietnam!

***Venezuela!

***Iraq

***Afghanistan

***School Worker Strikes (Why have school is next)

2.  Discussion about the syllabus.

3. What is history?   What are the motive forces of history?

a. How would you draw history?

3. Why have school? An exercise in critical thinking.

===================================================

Class One, History 100

Rich Gibson, PhD. Pennsylvania State University

Emeritus Professor, SDSU

Professor, SWC

Please display name cards in each class.

Our Phantasmagoric Agenda

Why are things as they are? We make our own history, but not in circumstances we chose.

“We can comprehend and change the world.” (Gibson)

“History does not erase grievances but lays them about like landmines.” Marx 

MEETING 1 – 2/26

February 26th

1616Galileo Galilei is formally banned by the Roman Catholic Church from teaching or defending the view that the earth orbits the sun.

Image result for charles lindbergh nazi

1935Adolf Hitler orders the Luftwaffe to be re-formed, violating the provisions of the Treaty of Versailles.

Gary Webb published extensively on the Iran-Contra Affair.

1987Iran–Contra affair: The Tower Commission rebukes President Ronald Reagan for not controlling his national security staff.

Ronald Reagan and George H. W. Bush repeatedly denined any knowledge of the Iran-Contra scheme. Sy Hersh (My Lai, Abu Ghraib) says they lied.

1993World Trade Center bombing: In New York City, a truck bomb parked below the North Tower of the World Trade Center explodes, killing six and injuring over a thousand.

Ramzi Yousef.gif

Above, Ramsey Yousef (aka) of the World Trade Center Bombing. He’s the nephew of Khalid Sheikh Mohammed (AQ). Youself was arrested by Pakistani ISI, renditioned to the US, tried, and convicted of a plot to kill the Pope, blow up eleven airlines, destroy the CIA building, and more. He’s serving several life sentences on “bombers’ row” in a Supermax in Colorado.

Agenda One

In most classes, we will address: “What’s up?” That is a brief discussion of our social context which is, or will be, history. The exercise demonstrates connections of the past to the present. Today, we will skip that to the end of class.

1.     Introductions.

1.  Questions:  Who are you? Why are we here?  Why take this class? What are you curious about?

b.     Who is this professor anyway? 

2.     What is history? What were you taught about history? How was it taught? Why? What do you remember most clearly? Why?  

3.  For next class–read the syllabus

4. If there is time, what’s up?

Obits!

Venezuela!

The Koreas!

Iraq

Afghanistan

School Worker Strikes (Why have school is next)